Is it possible to produce a PDF with un-copyable text? I mean, when you want to copy text from the PDF, you can't copy it or what you copy is nonsense characters.

  • 60
    Is it possible? Yes. (Well, sort of -- you could always convert to an image and OCR.) Is it a good idea? No. We must push back against the forces of OCR and commercialism, and push for the causes of open access, searchability, and software freedom. If those who favor open source software don't, no one will.
    – frabjous
    Commented Feb 17, 2011 at 15:16
  • 17
    IMHO, it is never a good idea to prevent other people from copying texts in a PDF file through techniques. If we must do such things, don't convert the texts to a image (vector or bitmap). Besides loss of quality, the result file may be very large.
    – Leo Liu
    Commented Feb 17, 2011 at 15:39
  • 32
    In addition, you'll do a huge disservice to blind people (though I guess PDF's aren't very accessible even in the best of cases).
    – Caramdir
    Commented Feb 17, 2011 at 15:52
  • 4
    "Cracked" isn't the right word. OCR = Optical Character Recognition. It takes an image, analyzes it to try to recognize letter shapes, and then outputs text. Of course, they could always retype what you've written, but that's usually faster.
    – frabjous
    Commented Feb 19, 2011 at 20:12
  • 24
    @warem: No, it's not possible. All you need to break it is a thing called "a typist". Commented Jun 3, 2011 at 21:23

12 Answers 12


Besides converting all texts to images, one method as I know, is to destroy the Cmaps of the fonts. We can use cmap package and a special cmap file for this purpose. This cmap file is generated inside the VerbatimOut environment.

(Warning: it does not make much sense to produce un-copyable PDF. OCR is very easy today.)

% pdflatex is required
%!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-CMap
%%DocumentNeededResources: ProcSet (CIDInit)
%%IncludeResource: ProcSet (CIDInit)
%%BeginResource: CMap (TeX-OT1-0)
%%Title: (TeX-OT1-0 TeX OT1 0)
%%Version: 1.000
/CIDInit /ProcSet findresource begin
12 dict begin
<< /Registry (TeX)
/Ordering (OT1)
/Supplement 0
>> def
/CMapName /TeX-OT1-0 def
/CMapType 2 def
1 begincodespacerange
<00> <7F>
8 beginbfrange
<00> <01> <0000>
<09> <0A> <0000>
<23> <26> <0000>
<28> <3B> <0000>
<3F> <5B> <0000>
<5D> <5E> <0000>
<61> <7A> <0000>
<7B> <7C> <0000>
40 beginbfchar
<02> <0000>
<03> <0000>
<04> <0000>
<05> <0000>
<06> <0000>
<07> <0000>
<08> <0000>
<0B> <0000>
<0C> <0000>
<0D> <0000>
<0E> <0000>
<0F> <0000>
<10> <0000>
<11> <0000>
<12> <0000>
<13> <0000>
<14> <0000>
<15> <0000>
<16> <0000>
<17> <0000>
<18> <0000>
<19> <0000>
<1A> <0000>
<1B> <0000>
<1C> <0000>
<1D> <0000>
<1E> <0000>
<1F> <0000>
<21> <0000>
<22> <0000>
<27> <0000>
<3C> <0000>
<3D> <0000>
<3E> <0000>
<5C> <0000>
<5F> <0000>
<60> <0000>
<7D> <0000>
<7E> <0000>
<7F> <0000>
CMapName currentdict /CMap defineresource pop




  • your method worked. thank you. but if i change \documentclass{article} to \documentclass[titlepage,a4paper,12pt]{article}, it didn't work.
    – warem
    Commented Feb 18, 2011 at 2:33
  • i just found if i didn't define 12pt at the beginning, then defined a newcommand to set the default font size later, your method worked now. i don't why. on the other hand, your method works for the whole text, is it possible to just work part of text?
    – warem
    Commented Feb 18, 2011 at 3:15
  • 8
    That method does not work me. My evince allows me happily to copy and paste the text. Also pdftotext extracts all the available text. So this method does not work. Commented Feb 14, 2013 at 20:51
  • 1
    For me too, this solution don't work.
    – dexterdev
    Commented Apr 16, 2015 at 8:20
  • 1
    @LeoLiu There is absolutely lots of value in doing this. For instance, I want to publicly post the PDF of my resume to LinkedIn, but I don't want spambots to harvest my email address or phone number. In this case, I want these bits to be unparseable by anyone other than humans. Commented Feb 11, 2019 at 21:12

Luatex allows manipulating fonts in the define_font callback. Luaotfload facilitates this even more with an extra hook it installs right after the font loader has finished its job: the luaotfload.patch_font callback. Normally it is used for serious and constructive tasks like setting a couple font dimensions or ensuring backward compatibility in the data structures. Of course, it can also be abused for dirty hacks like disabling copy and paste.

At the point where the patch_font callback is applied, the font is already defined and ready to use. All necessary tables are created and put in a place where Luatex expects them. Among these is the characters table that holds preprocessed information about the glyphs. In the below code we modify the tounicode field of each glyph so that it maps to some random location within the printable ASCII range. Note that this does not affect the shape and metrics of the glyph since those are unrelated to the actual codepoint. As a consequence, the PDF will contain legible text that cannot be copied.

Package file obfuscate.lua:

packagedata = packagedata or { }

local mathrandom    = math.random
local stringformat  = string.format

--- this is the callback by means of which we will obfuscate
--- the tounicode values so they map to random characters of
--- the printable ascii range (between 0x21 / 33 and 0x7e / 126)

local obfuscate = function (tfmdata, _specification)
  if not tfmdata or type (tfmdata) ~= "table" then

  local characters = tfmdata.characters
  if characters then
    for codepoint, char in next, characters do
      char.tounicode = stringformat ([[%0.4X]], mathrandom (0x21, 0x7e))

--- we also need some functions to toggle the callback activation so
--- we can obfuscate fonts selectively

local active = false

packagedata.obfuscate_begin = function ()
  if not active then
    luatexbase.add_to_callback ("luaotfload.patch_font", obfuscate,
                                "user.obfuscate_font", 1)
    active = true

packagedata.obfuscate_end = function ()
  if active then
    luatexbase.remove_from_callback ("luaotfload.patch_font",
    active = false

Usage demonstration:

%% we will need these packages
\input luatexbase.sty
\input luaotfload.sty

%% for inspecting the pdf with an ordinary editor

%% load obfuscation code
\RequireLuaModule {obfuscate}

%% convenience macro
\def \packagecmd #1{\directlua {packagedata.#1}}

%% the obfuscate environment, mapping to Lua functions that enable and
%% disable tounicode obfuscation
\def \beginobfuscate {\packagecmd {obfuscate_begin ()}}
\def \endobfuscate   {\packagecmd {obfuscate_end   ()}}

%% Demo

%% firstly, load some fonts. within the “obfuscate” environment all
%% fonts will get their cmaps scrambled ...


  \font \mainfont   = "file:Iwona-Regular.otf:mode=base"
  \font \italicfont = "file:Iwona-Italic.otf:mode=base"


%% ... while fonts defined outside will have the mapping intact

\font \boldfont       = "file:Iwona-Bold.otf:mode=base"
\font \bolditalicfont = "file:Iwona-BoldItalic.otf:mode=base"

%% now we can use them in our document like any ordinary font

obfuscated text before {\italicfont     obfuscated too} and after \par
obfuscated text before {\boldfont       not obfuscated} and after \par
obfuscated text before {\bolditalicfont not obfuscated} and after \par


Result in PDF viewer:

result displayed

Contrast this with the output of pdftotext:

\rf2yC'I_J I_dI r_f\{_ 9;H`bp<<L& <99 '5J 'fI_{
\rf2yC'I_J I_dI r_f\{_ not obfuscated '5J 'fI_{
\rf2yC'I_J I_dI r_f\{_ not obfuscated '5J 'fI_{

But please forget about all this immediately and never obfuscate a production text -- don’t be mean to your readers!

EDIT Because the generous karma donor specifically asked for a Context solution, I’ll throw that one in as a bonus. It is a good deal more elegant since it relies on the font goodies mechanism that allows applying postprocessors to specific fonts which can afterwards be used just like common font features.


local mathrandom    = math.random
local stringformat  = string.format

--- create a postprocessor

local obfuscate = function (tfmdata)
  fonts.goodies.registerpostprocessor (tfmdata, function (tfmdata)
    if not tfmdata or type (tfmdata) ~= "table" then

    local characters = tfmdata.characters
    if characters then
      for codepoint, char in next, characters do
        char.tounicode = stringformat ([[%0.4X]], mathrandom (0x21, 0x7e))

--- now register as a font feature

fonts.handlers.otf.features.register {
  name         = "obfuscate",
  description  = "treat the reader like a piece of garbage",
  default      = false,
  initializers = {
    base     = obfuscate,
    node     = obfuscate,


%% demonstration

%% we can now treat the obfuscation postprocessor like any other
%% font feature

\definefontfeature [obfuscate] [obfuscate=yes]

\definefont [mainfont]   [file:Iwona-Regular.otf*obfuscate]
\definefont [italicfont] [file:Iwona-Italic.otf*obfuscate]

\definefont [boldfont]       [file:Iwona-Bold.otf]
\definefont [bolditalicfont] [file:Iwona-BoldItalic.otf]


  obfuscated text before {\italicfont     obfuscated too} and after \par
  obfuscated text before {\boldfont       not obfuscated} and after \par
  obfuscated text before {\bolditalicfont not obfuscated} and after \par

  • 4
    I'll see your obfuscator and raise you by some free OCR package :D Commented Nov 6, 2013 at 15:20
  • 3
    @Mark Never mind OCR, this is deterministic 1 to 1 character mapping: t=I, e=_, x=d, etc. A few minutes with a document could produce a sed substitution expression for all the changed glyphs. Pipe your pdftotext into that and you have a 100% fix. All this does is waste both author (and reader) time without actually solving anything but making them feel like they have. Poor-mans-DRM is even worse than the real thing.
    – Caleb
    Commented Dec 20, 2014 at 15:49
  • 2
    @Caleb I disagree with your view on this. There is absolutely value in doing this. For instance, I want to publicly post the PDF of my resume to LinkedIn, but I don't want spambots to harvest my email address or phone number. In this case, I want these bits to be unparseable by anyone other than humans. Commented Feb 11, 2019 at 21:13
  • Can you give a real-world demo of how to use this with lualatex and, e.g., article document class? I don't know how to use it :-(
    – bonanza
    Commented May 8, 2019 at 9:47
  • 1
    I see many complaints that there is no value in doing this and it should never be done, yet not all pdfs are created for production and distribution where they will be immediately hacked. For instance, I am programming instructor. I occasionally want to give my beginning students sample code that they have to type out in order to learn basic programming. Some of the code can be modified to answer homework problems. I do not want them simply copying and pasting the code, so I give obfuscated pdfs. If a student were to un-obfuscate it and I found out, great! I'd say good job and make a new one.
    – Kallaste
    Commented Dec 10, 2021 at 0:34


I use a little script, which converts all my fonts to paths. The script uses the first parameter as input of a .pdf-file and writes the output to a file with the same name and the extension-rst.pdf

You need Ghostscript for my script to run.


Runs on bash



$GS -sDEVICE=ps2write       -dNOCACHE -sOutputFile=-        -q -dBATCH -dNOPAUSE "$1"       -c quit | ps2pdf - > "${1%%.*}-rst.pdf"
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "Output written to ${1%%.*}-rst.pdf"
    echo "There were errors. See the output."

use ps2write (instead of pswrite) these days as seen here.


enter image description here

  • 7
    Well I guess, that there is no way to trick any OCR Software (without adding things, like striking/crossing the text out), because the OCR Software can read, what you can read. Commented Aug 12, 2013 at 20:50
  • 1
    Specialised OCR software can break some types of CAPTCHA too... You can use excessive striking/deforming/noise to harden your file against this, but then humans won't be able to read half of it either! Commented Aug 12, 2013 at 23:52
  • 1
    Your script works, but (at least on my files, which are slides produced with beamer) produces very pale and large files. It also takes a relatively long time to finish. Commented Oct 22, 2013 at 8:46
  • 1
    @Trickster You run it like bash script_name "path/to/pdf/file". You don't need sudo as no additional privileges are needed for this script. Commented Nov 24, 2013 at 9:30
  • 5
    Ghostscript has been improved and can do it on its own nowadays, gs -o file-with-outlines.pdf -dNoOutputFonts -sDEVICE=pdfwrite file.pdf.
    – arnt
    Commented Nov 28, 2019 at 8:28

You can disable the copying of text with the help of PDF encryption. With it you can also disable other things like printing.

You need to use an external PDF tool like pdftk or of course the full version of Adobe Acrobat to encrypt the PDF.

  • 11
    However, encryption doesn't work for (almost all as I know) non-Adobe PDF readers.
    – Leo Liu
    Commented Feb 17, 2011 at 15:14
  • 1
    I often use a certain open-source reader (with just one line of code commented out) to bypass PDF protection and passwords. Anyone familiar with SourceForge, GIT and MAKE can easily roll their own in a matter of minutes too. Commented Aug 12, 2013 at 23:54
  • @MarkKCowan I know of other, less sophisticated (if but also effective) ways than what you describe; out of sheer curiousity (though that curiousity is not that large that I'd try and patch it myself): Could you provide more verbose details or a link to a commented (indicating the commented-out line) GIT ? - sry about the overuse of (brackets); I'm drunk. Commented Aug 14, 2013 at 20:22
  • It was a long time ago when I built it. I think it was a Java application, there was one particular line which was a const "final boolean <something> = <somevalue>;" which related to password protection. Apparently, Ubuntu was the only distro where the password protection had been enabled, so I flipped that boolean and recompiled to produce a binary which didn't bother with the whole password fake-DRM stuff. Strictly speaking, I changed the value of a boolean constant, rather than commenting out a line. Commented Aug 14, 2013 at 23:27
  • Okular has a user setting which determines whether it recognises DRM or not...
    – cfr
    Commented Aug 25, 2014 at 3:39

If content can be viewed, it can be copied. No matter what encryption and restrictions are used, at some point the content must be put out in plain view in order for it to be of any use. This is probably true of all digital content and most physical content larger than the nanoscale...

For example, a PDF:

  • Rasterisation: Printscreen => OCR
  • Any protection: Re-type it out
  • Content protection: Modified build of an open-source reader

Web content:

  • Right-click popup: Opera=>Prevent page receiving content menu events
  • Right-click popup: "Menu" button on any modern keyboard
  • Flash: Download the SWF file, decompile it using free software
  • View page source, use Chrome/Opera/Firefox debugger to get URL of desired content

Audio (e.g. HDCP):

  • Headphones socket on TV => line-in socket on PC
  • Solder to tap into preamplifier => line-in socket on PC

Video (e.g. HDCP):

  • Many, many options... A quick google search will show you.

Encrypted content on someone's laptop/pendrive:

  • One of these is not like the others. The last item is both wrong and a different scenario from your premise.
    – Caleb
    Commented Dec 20, 2014 at 15:54
  • A possible use case is to prevent e.g. the line numbers of a piece of code to be copied.
    – Trebor
    Commented Feb 27, 2023 at 5:02

The answer is: Yes. There is a way described here: http://spivey.oriel.ox.ac.uk/corner/Obfuscated_PDF

But it looks tedious and doesn't use pdflatex. The method, however, is described as being portable to PDF. It involves changing glyphs of a font and other dirty things that get you bad dreams.

I didn't find a method described for directly PDF let alone something automated for pdflatex. I'll happily buy you a beverage of your choice if you implement it :-)


You can use Ghostscript for that. Just create your PDF as usual and run

 gs -o output.pdf -dNoOutputFonts -sDEVICE=pdfwrite input.pdf

Please note that you cannot prevent people from using OCR software like Tesseract on the output. I'm not even sure if making the PDF an image prevents todays search engines from indexing your PDF. The file size increases, people with eye problems will have a harder time. So think hard if you really want to harm your readers like that.

  • However, no pdf viewer seems to respect that setting Commented Mar 23, 2023 at 13:10

You can use ImageMagick to convert the pdf to an image pdf. Running convert file1.pdf file2.pdf will create a pdf called file2.pdf which is about the same size as the input pdf but since its an image, the text cannot be selected. There is a notable decrease in quality though

  • there are several parameters to convert that improve output quality.
    – jarnosz
    Commented May 25, 2019 at 1:12

I am using gswin32 only make a pdf after change the format to ps:

"C:\Program Files (x86)\gs\gs9.09\bin\gswin32.exe" -sDEVICE=ps2write -r9000 
-dNOPAUSE -sOutputFile=OUTPUT.ps input_insecure.pdf

Now translate to pdf with secure mode 4 (only read and print):

"C:\Program Files (x86)\gs\gs9.09\bin\gswin32.exe" -sDEVICE=pdfwrite -r9000 
-dNOPAUSE -sPAPERSIZE=a4 -dPDFSETTINGS=/prepress -dMaxSubsetPct=100 
-dSubsetFonts=true -dEmbedAllFonts=true -sOwnerPassword=null -dEncryptionR=3 
-dKeyLength=40 -dPermissions=4 -sOutputFile=OUTPUT_secure.pdf output.ps

On a unix-based system, you can probably type gswin32 instead of "C:\Program Files (x86)\gs\gs9.09\bin\gswin32.exe".


Use XeTeX to at least get some "nonsense characters", see here and here.

Though this would obviously be just a nuisance for most cases/users (which can be avoided using LuaLaTeX instead), depending on what you are trying to achieve compiling with XeTeX may prove to add at least some value to your solution...


I came up with the following solution: I'm using ocrmypdf (https://github.com/jbarlow83/OCRmyPDF) which behind the scenes uses Tesseract, and I force it to OCR my pdf in a language with a very different alphabet (e.g. Korean). This will effectively replace my text content with none-sense, because of the differences in alphabets.

ocrmypdf --force-ocr -l kor input.pdf output.pdf
  • Nice, the only thing, however, is that coloured texts is rendered as a dotted pattern (see imgur.com/wtdXk5A, where the text was dark blue).
    – NVaughan
    Commented Aug 20, 2019 at 22:39

I don't think anyone has mentioned you can use expensive paid for security to try and stop screen grabbing. (You use a dedicated coded viewer and that monitors the system for known applications)

However as I have seen that defeated both by above mentioned "Typist" technique and also seen it cannot detect some "freeware" screen OCR grabbers, It would be pointless for anyone else to have given this as a valid answer.

Especially if they have a camera phone with OCR app or can hit the alternative "PrintScreen" button.

Please buy more snake oil it keeps the PDF industry thriving.

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