When trying to compile any document containing the line:


I get the following error:

! Package babel Error: Unknow option `brazilian'. Either you misspelled it
(babel)                or the language definition file brazilian.ldf was not fo

Additional info:

  • I get an analagous error when replacing brazilian by anything other than english.
  • I'm running texlive on Windows, so my way of managing packages is through tlmgr
  • Tried to uninstall and reinstall babel package and got nothing.
  • I sense something is wrong since babel is looking for the file "brazilian.ldf" but this is my output to tlmgr search --global --file "brazilian":
tlmgr.pl: package repository http://mirror.jmu.edu/pub/CTAN/systems/texlive/tlnet

So, no brazilian.ldf here...


Looking at the comments and searching for portuges.ldf file, the following package install command solved the problem here:

tlmgr install babel-portuges

(ps: had to remove old .aux files)

  • 4
    Use brazil instead.
    – Sigur
    Jun 26, 2013 at 22:55
  • 1
    What engine are you using to compile with? (pdfLaTeX? LuaLaTeX?) The brazilian option is a synonym of portuges which is why you won't find a brazilian.ldf.
    – Alan Munn
    Jun 26, 2013 at 23:02
  • I used this command to install babel-portugues: sudo apt-get install texlive-lang-portuguese Feb 1, 2017 at 10:14

4 Answers 4


If you don't have the language installed you can do it installing texlive-lang-portuguese.

Then the brazilian option should work.

  • I'm sorry, but how exactly can I install it? It's through tlmgr (it says there is no such package)?
    – BabelError
    Jun 27, 2013 at 1:31
  • 1
    @BabelError: That's probably a debian/ubuntu package. Jun 27, 2013 at 19:02

If you look into babel.sty (version 2013/05/16 v3.9f), you will see the option declaration for brazilian:


Thus the basic language definition file is portuges.ldf. It is often the case that a language can support several dialects and aliases.

The file portuges.ldf is part of package babel-portuges in TeX Live 2013. From tlpkg/texlive.tlpdb (TeX Live Package DataBase):

name babel-portuges
category Package
revision 30284
docfiles size=36
srcfiles size=7
runfiles size=2

As option brazilian is known to babel (see the option declaration above), the file portuges.ldf is very likely not installed. After installing babel-portuges with tlmgr the problem should be solved.


Instead of using \usepackage[brazilian]{babel}, use \usepackage[brazil]{babel}. It should work.

According to the documentation, brazilian should work as well as brazil, but it isn't. Perhaps brazilian was removed (no longer in use) but the documentation wasn't updated. The weird thing is that taking a fast look at the code, brazilian is there! Maybe it's a bug. Not sure! I am using the latest package update until this post.

Please leave a feedback if it worked or not. Don't forget to ensure Babel package is properly installed on your machine.


this worked for me:

sudo dnf texlive-babel brazil

I'm using fedora btw.

  • Welcome to the site! Unfortunately, this isn’t applicable to the vast majority of TeX installations. An answer about how to install the required package on other systems would be a great improvement.
    – Davislor
    May 12, 2022 at 4:54

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