I am trying to simulate my graduate school's references style using apacite package with bibtex. They claim their guidelines are close to APA but it is indeed an hybrid that no-one really accomplishes fully. Even though there seems to be no differences in entries with a single author between mine: mine

and the graduate school's enter image description here3;

there is a quite difference when the resources have two enter image description here

or more authors enter image description here .

Here are the two author

enter image description here

and multiple author

enter image description here in the reference style of the school. (The word ve means 'and' in Turkish.) Is there anyway to accomplish this entry style by modifying apacite 's attributes about two and multiple authored papers?

  • My Turkish is a little rusty: "ve" is "and"?
    – mafp
    Jul 14, 2013 at 8:53
  • Yes, exactly. Sorry I've forgotten to explain it. Jul 14, 2013 at 9:40
  • Is the issue the semicolon between multiple authors and the 've' instead of '&'? (Your school also puts a space between the volume and issue that isn't present in the APA version.)
    – Alan Munn
    Jul 14, 2013 at 13:56
  • @AlanMunn Yes as what you've said Alan. Also there is one additional issue; I found that instead of ampersand you can put any word you want, for example 'and' by \renewcommand{\BBAA}{and} but then the comma (,) before ampersand (&) remains. Jul 14, 2013 at 14:11

1 Answer 1


Most of your school's specification can be obtained with the means of apacite, except the semicolon between multiple authors, which is hard-coded in apacite.bst.

The relevant changes are the redefinitions of \BBAA, \BCBT, and \BCBL, see the code. The space bewteen volume and issue is obtained by adding a ~ to \APACjournalVolNumPages when there is an issue number in the reference.

To get the semicolon, make a copy of apacite.bst, and change line 2320 in your copy from

FUNCTION {comma.between.names} { ", " }


FUNCTION {comma.between.names} { "; " }

Then we obtain



  \renewcommand{\BBAA}{ve}%% the 'and' between authors in a parenthetical citation and in the reference list
  \renewcommand{\BCBT}{}%% comma between authors in the reference section when there are two authors
  \renewcommand{\BCBL}{}%% comma before the last author when there are three or more authors in a citation and in the reference section
%% make a space between volume and issue:
  \Bem{#1}%             journal
    \unskip, \Bem{#2}%  volume
    \unskip~({#3})%      issue number; added the '~'
    \unskip, {#4}%      pages
\cite{Ca04}% one author
\cite{StGu92}% two authors
\cite{GhJaEn02}% three authors

\bibliographystyle{oakenshieldapacite}%% based on apacite.bst

sample output

  • I was just about to post this answer too. Hopefully the school doesn't require a comma between multiple authors in citations as well as the semi-colon in the bibliography.
    – Alan Munn
    Jul 14, 2013 at 17:23
  • @AlanMunn Let's see whether the OP accepts it as is :-)
    – mafp
    Jul 14, 2013 at 17:27
  • @mafp It worked flawlessly. Thank you very much. I have two more question: 1) Is it a more structured way to write a turkish.apc file for these kind of problems? 2) How can i change the "et al." abbreviation in multiply authored papers' citations to its Turkish counterpart "vd." Jul 14, 2013 at 19:54
  • 1
    @oakenshield1 1) Yes, most definitely.You could even submit it to the authors of apacite. 2) The commands to change are \BOthers and \BOthersPeriod. Their default setting is et al.\hbox{}.
    – mafp
    Jul 15, 2013 at 6:55

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