Text below is now historic. The bug was fixed in February 2014, cf. linked bug entry.
It seems to be a problem of the MiKTeX package
tfrupee itself: The map file though present in the package is not activated, i.e. the contents are not copied into the distribution wide configuration file.
As a workaround you can add the following line into your document
But a real solution can only be done by the developer of MiKTeX. For this, a bug is filed in the MiKTeX Bug tracker under font tfrupe not activated (yes, with typo).