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So, I'm new to using latex and I need to draw some figures, specifically spheres and arcs and how to label endpoints.

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1 Answer 1

22

You can have a nice starting point in Spherical and cartesian grids by Tomasz M. Trzeciak, in TeXample.net; below I reproduce part of the original code:

% Code by Author: Tomasz M. Trzeciak
% Source: LaTeX-Community.org 
% <http://www.latex-community.org/viewtopic.php?f=4&t=2111>
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{tikz}

\newcommand\pgfmathsinandcos[3]{%
  \pgfmathsetmacro#1{sin(#3)}%
  \pgfmathsetmacro#2{cos(#3)}%
}
\newcommand\LongitudePlane[3][current plane]{%
  \pgfmathsinandcos\sinEl\cosEl{#2} % elevation
  \pgfmathsinandcos\sint\cost{#3} % azimuth
  \tikzset{#1/.style={cm={\cost,\sint*\sinEl,0,\cosEl,(0,0)}}}
}
\newcommand\LatitudePlane[3][current plane]{%
  \pgfmathsinandcos\sinEl\cosEl{#2} % elevation
  \pgfmathsinandcos\sint\cost{#3} % latitude
  \pgfmathsetmacro\yshift{\cosEl*\sint}
  \tikzset{#1/.style={cm={\cost,0,0,\cost*\sinEl,(0,\yshift)}}} %
}
\newcommand\DrawLongitudeCircle[2][1]{
  \LongitudePlane{\angEl}{#2}
  \tikzset{current plane/.prefix style={scale=#1}}
   % angle of "visibility"
  \pgfmathsetmacro\angVis{atan(sin(#2)*cos(\angEl)/sin(\angEl))} %
  \draw[current plane] (\angVis:1) arc (\angVis:\angVis+180:1);
  \draw[current plane,dashed] (\angVis-180:1) arc (\angVis-180:\angVis:1);
}
\newcommand\DrawLatitudeCircle[2][2]{
  \LatitudePlane{\angEl}{#2}
  \tikzset{current plane/.prefix style={scale=#1}}
  \pgfmathsetmacro\sinVis{sin(#2)/cos(#2)*sin(\angEl)/cos(\angEl)}
  % angle of "visibility"
  \pgfmathsetmacro\angVis{asin(min(1,max(\sinVis,-1)))}
  \draw[current plane] (\angVis:1) arc (\angVis:-\angVis-180:1);
  \draw[current plane,dashed] (180-\angVis:1) arc (180-\angVis:\angVis:1);
}

\begin{document}

\begin{tikzpicture} % "THE GLOBE" showcase
\def\R{2.5} % sphere radius
\def\angEl{35} % elevation angle
\filldraw[ball color=white] (0,0) circle (\R);
\foreach \t in {-80,-60,...,80} { \DrawLatitudeCircle[\R]{\t} }
\foreach \t in {-5,-35,...,-175} { \DrawLongitudeCircle[\R]{\t} }
\end{tikzpicture}

\end{document}

enter image description here

An animation obtained using beamer overlays and the code above:

enter image description here

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  • Thank you very much! For me, it was very useful. Aug 12, 2022 at 15:43

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