# How to use predefined command in LNCS

When I check the llncs.cls, I find several commands that are already defined, for example:

\def\ackname{Acknowledgement.}
\def\appendixname{Appendix}


But how to use these commands? I tried with \begin{ackname} ... \end{ackname}, and it doesn't work. Thanks.

• Those are macros as every other macro also, use them as \ackname and \appendixname if needed. Though, the class probably provides other commands or environments that actually include this macros. Macros ending with \…name are usually set up to work with different languages (babel, polyglossia). – Qrrbrbirlbel Aug 12 '13 at 6:39
• Welcome to TeX.SX! You can have a look at our starter guide to familiarize yourself further with our format. – Martin Schröder Aug 12 '13 at 6:41
• @Qrrbrbirlbel: Thanks. I tried to use \ackname and it compiles OK, but nothing appears. Could you help me a little bit more. I'm newbie to Tex. – qsp Aug 12 '13 at 8:30
• @Qrrbrbirlbel: I'm also looking for those command using \ackname correctly. – Blaisorblade Oct 8 '13 at 20:17

Try this example:

\documentclass{llncs}

\begin{document}

\section{Introduction}
Testing names:

\abstractname

\ackname

\appendixname

\section{Test}

\begin{abstract}
This is the abstract.
\end{abstract}

\renewcommand{\abstractname}{\ackname}

\begin{abstract}
This are the acknowledgements.
\end{abstract}

\section{\appendixname}
This is an appendix.

\end{document}


Then, change the line

\documentclass{llncs}


to

\documentclass[francais]{llncs}


and see what happens: all names have changed because llncs redefines them for French language.

As you can see, loading the llncs class with the option francais (you can also use the option deutsch to switch to German) all the names are switched to French.

Also note that this class doesn't define any predefined command for using \appendixname or \ackname. You have to load packages that use these names for exploiting them somehow.

• Thanks. It's clear to me. But I thought there should be the command to generate acknowledgements and appendix. – qsp Aug 12 '13 at 12:56
• qsp: I also expected some command for \section{\appendixname} (other packages provide it), especially because LNCS doesn't want it to be a section but an unnumbered run-in heading, according to Springer_CS_Proceedings_Author_Guidelines_Jan_2013.pdf, hence a \subsubsection (though they don't write it, AFAICS). – Blaisorblade Oct 8 '13 at 20:16