# How to change the font size of the whole abstract in the article class

I am using the following to generate an article with 12pt and 1.5 linespread:

\documentclass[english,12pt, a4paper]{article}
\usepackage{babel}
\usepackage{times}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{float}
\begin{document}
\begin{abstract}
Abstract
\end{abstract}
\end{document}


Of course the abstract appears to have a smaller font size than 12. How can I make all fonts in my article to be 12pt?

• You could use \fontsize{12pt}{14pt}\selectfont at the beginning of the document. You can also use other sizes for the 14pt (leading) but it should be larger than the 12pt. The leading determines the distance between subsequent lines (assuming they are not stretched). – user10274 Sep 13 '13 at 13:32

You have several options.

• Add \normalsize right at the beginning of the abstract
• Patch the abstract environment by »etoolbox«.
• Renew the abstract environment by taking its original code from the article class and doing the modifications by hand.

The first option is the shortest.

\documentclass[11pt]{article}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{lipsum}

\begin{document}
\begin{abstract}
\normalsize
\lipsum[1]
\end{abstract}


The next option is a bit longer.

\documentclass[11pt]{article}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{etoolbox}
\usepackage{lipsum}

\patchcmd{\abstract}{\small}{}{}{}

\begin{document}
\begin{abstract}
\lipsum[1]
\end{abstract}

\lipsum[2]
\end{document}


The last option is a much longer and makes the code unclear.

\documentclass[11pt]{article}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{lipsum}

\makeatletter
\if@titlepage
\renewenvironment{abstract}{%
\titlepage
\null\vfil
\@beginparpenalty\@lowpenalty
\begin{center}%
\bfseries \abstractname
\@endparpenalty\@M
\end{center}}%
{\par\vfil\null\endtitlepage}
\else
\renewenvironment{abstract}{%
\if@twocolumn
\section*{\abstractname}%
\else
%        \small  % this causes the smaller font size
\begin{center}%
{\bfseries \abstractname\vspace{-.5em}\vspace{\z@}}%
\end{center}%
\quotation
\fi}
{\if@twocolumn\else\endquotation\fi}
\fi
\makeatother

\begin{document}
\begin{abstract}
\lipsum[1]
\end{abstract}

\lipsum[2]
\end{document}


All you have to do is to choose your favorite method.

• Or just issue \normalsize inside the abstract environment. That would by my option 0, since it's a one-time use change. :) – Werner Sep 13 '13 at 16:21
• Thank you Werner! Feel free to add it as an answer and I will accept it! However also thank you Thorsten, your methods worked fine but are much longer... – C.Colden Sep 14 '13 at 10:59
• @C.Colden: I incorporated that option into my answer. – Thorsten Donig Sep 14 '13 at 15:55
• There is one another way, by making abstract a section: \section*{Abstract} – WYSIWYG Aug 17 '15 at 17:02
• \normalsize did not work on overleaf in 2020, don't know why – Travis 2 days ago