I am using the LNCS document class to typeset a paper. I would like to keep most of this document style, but I do not like how paragraphs are typeset. The heading of the paragraph is in italics, which is not enough contrast to the rest of the text. I would like to change this to bold text.

How can I override the paragraph style, being minimally invasive?

  • Could you provide a minimal working example (MWE) of your paragraph usage that displays the current, unwanted behaviour? It avoids having to re-invent the wheel to get at the point you're at.
    – Werner
    Commented Sep 20, 2013 at 15:33
  • Are you planning on submitting your document to LNCS? If you are, it's best not to modify their style. Commented Sep 20, 2013 at 15:34
  • 1
    \usepackage{etoolbox}\patchcmd{\paragraph}{\itshape}{\bfseries\boldmath}{}{} should be sufficient. But I have a couple of doubts: (1) if you're using the class for submitting to Springer, don't modify the style; (2) \paragraph is the fourth level of sectioning: are you sure you want to use it and give it much prominence? Moreover, you'd get the same as \subsubsection.
    – egreg
    Commented Sep 20, 2013 at 15:38
  • @NicolaTalbot Not submitting to Springer and the LNCS style is not required, so patching is okay.
    – clstaudt
    Commented Sep 20, 2013 at 15:49
  • 1
    @clstaudt \subsubsection already does that.
    – egreg
    Commented Sep 20, 2013 at 15:56

1 Answer 1


Doing what you ask is very easy: add


to your document preamble.

However, this will make the typesetting of \paragraph titles very similar to what's already done for \subsubsection.

As far as I understand, the llncs class has three levels of sectioning, corresponding to \section, \subsection and \subsubsection. The last one is unnumbered by default.

The example document uses \paragraph for comments about proofs or similar things, so just as a “special paragraph” of text. I believe this is good usage, but I wouldn't give these special paragraphs much prominence than they already are given with the title in italics.

Trust me: a paragraph starting with a title in italics and preceded by some vertical space is noticeable. Rather, it's more questionable that there is no vertical space at the end of this special paragraph.

You can define a comments environment that remedies to this situation:

  {\par\addvspace{12pt plus 4pt minus 4pt}}

that will add the same vertical space at the bottom as it adds at the top.

Don't abuse \subsubsection for this purpose.

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