# How to avoid orphans and widows when using the combine class?

Is there a way to avoid orphans and widows when using the combine class? I have already tried this:

\widowpenalty10000
\clubpenalty10000


or this:

\usepackage[all]{nowidow}


but they simply have no effect. :-( I guess it is because I am using the class combine. :-/

An example is something like that:

\documentclass[11pt]{combine}
\title{Proceedings title...}
\author{Editor's Name}
\date{24th September 2013}
\begin{document}
\pagestyle{combine}
\maketitle
\tableofcontents
\clearpage

\begin{papers}

\coltoctitle{Title1}
\coltocauthor{Author1}
\import{1}

\coltoctitle{Title2}
\coltocauthor{Author2}
\import{2}

...

\end{papers}
\clearpage
\end{document}


and then we have several articles 1.tex, 2.tex, etc. Below follows the result I am experiencing. I cannot get rid of these few lines that run alone on the next page or some sections that start at the end of one page, so the header stays alone in a page and the content goes all to the next page.

\documentclass[10pt,a4paper]{spie}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{amsfonts}
\usepackage{amssymb}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{tipa}
\widowpenalties 3 10000 10000 0
\title{Cross-linguistic effects on voice quality: an investigation on Brazilians’ production of Portuguese and English}
\author{Ana Paula Petriu Ferreira Engelbert \and Adelaide Herc\'{i}lia Pescatori Silva}
\date{}
\begin{document}
\maketitle
\section*{Abstract}
When we speak a foreign language (L2), we almost certainly sound different from how we sound in our native language (L1). Thus, the aim of this study was to compare voice quality when Brazilians speak their native language, Brazilian Portuguese (BP), and English as L2, in order to verify what changes in their voices when they speak different languages. Laver (1980, p.1) describes voice qualiy as “the characteristic auditory coloring of an individual speaker’s voice.”  According to Abercrombie (1967, p. 91), voice quality refers to “those characteristics which are present more or less all the time that a person is talking: it is a quasi-permanent quality running through all the sound that issues from his mouth”. Esling (2000) claims that each language has its own pattern of physiological behavior in which articulators are trained to operate in different ways based on the language’s phonetic constituent. As a result, it is expected that speakers use different voice qualities when speaking different languages. In order to assess these features, the present study compared L1 and L2 speech production, analyzing intra-speaker variation in voice qualities with the aid of perceptual and acoustic instrumental analysis. To test methodological choices on speakers and text types, a pilot study was carried out. Data consisted of three Brazilian proficient speakers of English performing a reading task in Portuguese and English, with three repetitions, recorded in a room with soundproof. Also, an English native speaker was recorded performing the same task in both English and Portuguese. The acoustic analysis was based on LTAS measures, f0, spectral slope, H1-H2 and noise-to-harmonics ratio, and was done with the aid of the free software Praat (Boersma and Weenink, 2012). Preliminary results show different LTAS values, greater inclination of the spectral slope for L2 than the L1, and higher f0 in L2 than in L1. Therefore, there seems to be a tendency concerning the differences in voice quality when Brazilians speak Portuguese and English.

%
\section*{References}
{\parindent0pt

Abercrombie D. (1967). Elements of general phonetics. Edinburgh:Edinburgh University Press.

Boersma, Paul and Weenink, David (2012). Praat: doing phonetics by computer [Computer program]. Version 5.3.34, retrieved 21 November 2012 from http://www.praat.org/

Esling, J. (2000). Crosslinguistic Aspects of Voice Quality. IN Kent, RD and Ball, MJ (eds). Voice quality measurement. Singular Publishing Group: California.

Laver J.(1980). The phonetic description of voice quality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
}
\end{document}


\documentclass[11pt]{combine}
\usepackage{tipa}
\widowpenalties 3 10000 10000 0
\title{Proceedings of the ...}
\author{Editor's Name\thanks{Support ...}}
\date{7th-9th October 2013}
\usepackage[left=3.5cm,right=3.5cm,top=3cm,bottom=3cm]{geometry}
\begin{document}
\pagestyle{combine}
\maketitle
\tableofcontents
\clearpage
\section*{Editor's introduction} \label{intro} Blabla blablabla bla blablabla bla blablabla
\begin{papers}

\coltoctitle{Cross-linguistic effects on voice quality: an investigation on Brazilians’ production of Portuguese and English}
\coltocauthor{Ana Paula Petriu Ferreira Engelbert and Adelaide Herc\'{i}lia Pescatori Silva}
\import{1}

\end{papers}
\clearpage
\end{document}

• Welcome to TeX.SX! Two lines don't make a widow. – egreg Sep 24 '13 at 21:57
• the widow and club penalties affect a single line at a page break but if I read your image correctly there are two lines going over there so the penalties will have no effect. Please supply a working minimal example that shows the problem. – David Carlisle Sep 24 '13 at 21:58
• Looking at the images of the pages you're uploaded, it doesn't look to me like you have (typographic) widows on pages 2 and 5. Both show two lines rather than a single line. Have you tried inserting an instruction such as \enlargethispage{1\baselineskip} on pages 1 and 4? – Mico Sep 24 '13 at 21:59
• well, I'm looking for an automatic solution... I could place a \pagebreak and make the final lines of an article run to the next page... but I would like to have something that would automatically move an entire paragraph or section to the next page to avoid an almost empty page (those with just one, two, three or four lines alone in a single page). I have provided a minimal example here: ge.tt/5WYFm1t/v/0 note that in 1.tex I have placed a \pagebreak as a comment, that would be my desired result. – LEo Sep 25 '13 at 17:12

\widowpenalty10000


only affects a page break before the last line of a paragraph, your images show two lines so this has no affect on that break position.

The e-TeX extension \widowpenalties allows penalties to be specified for multiple lines so for example

\widowpenalties 3 10000 10000 0


affects the page break at the last 2 lines of a paragraph.

Note however it is not enough to discourage penalties at these positions, even with infinite (10000) penalty. You have to give TeX some place where it is allowed to break the page, specifically have enough stretchable vertical glue to fill any extra space resulting from taking more lines over to the next page.

• I tried... but it did not work out. :( I made an example, which is available here: ge.tt/5WYFm1t/v/0 note that in 1.tex I have placed a \pagebreak as a comment, that would be my desired result. But still widowpenalties didn't manage to do it automatically. Any tip? – LEo Sep 25 '13 at 17:07
• @LEo please always put code on site to keep the question self contained widowpenalties is going to have no effect o that document as it is not the last two lines breaking over the page, the entire paragraph went over the page. The break happened between paragraphs. – David Carlisle Sep 25 '13 at 19:57
• Thanks, @DavidCarlisle. I will hold the problematic content inside a \begin{minipage}{\linewidth}...\end{minipage} and force them to stick together. – LEo Sep 25 '13 at 22:30