# Question marks instead of citation

I'm a new user for LaTeX, I'm using svmult for springer, but there sth I can't get it about thebibliography. I use the following packages:

\documentclass[10pt]{svmult}
%
\usepackage{makeidx}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{multicol}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{eqnarray}
\usepackage{subeqnarray}
\usepackage{cite}
\usepackage{url}
\usepackage[bottom]{footmisc}    % places footnotes at page
%
%
% the input bibligraphy file
\begin{thebibliography}{23}
\bibitem[%no.]{%type}
\end{thebibliography}


I get a question marks ?? instead of citation numbers besides.

Another thing I don't know how to access to sec or figure by cross-references, in the reference guide the recommended oribibl but it doesn't work with me.

I got the whole package of CTAN by MiKTeX 2.9

if there is any forgotten one in the above code

## Example ##

\documentclass[10pt]{svmult}

\usepackage{makeidx}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{multicol}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{eqnarray}
\usepackage{subeqnarray}
\usepackage{cite}
\usepackage{url}
\usepackage[bottom]{footmisc}

\makeindex

%%

\begin{document}
\title*{My examle}
\author{Hend \inst{1}}
\institute{University
\texttt{sth@gmail.com}}
%%
\maketitle

\begin{abstract}
first paragraph
\\
\keywords{keywords}
\end{abstract}

\section{Introduction}
\label{sec:1}
Ref one goes here
\cite{[1]}.
\paragraph{}
multi-ref
\cite{2--4}.
\input{exreference}
%%%
\printindex
\end{document}


And the input reference as

\begin{thebibliography}{23}

%references
\bibitem[1]{journal} Krippner, P., Beer, D.: AOI testing positions in comparisons. Circuit Assembly, \textbf{15}, 26--32 (2004)

\bibitem[2]{journal} Jiang, B.C., Wang, C.C., Hsu, Y.N.: Machine vision and background remover-based approach for PCB solder joints inspection. International Journal of Production Research, \textbf{45}, 451--464 (2007)

\bibitem[3]{journal} Acciani, G., Brunetti, G., Fornarelli, G.: A multiple neural network system to classify solder joints on integrated circuits. International Journal of Computational Intelligence Research, \textbf{2}, 337--348 (2006)

\bibitem[4]{journal} Mar, N.S.S., Fookes, C., Yarlagadda, P.K.D.V.: Design and development of automatic visual inspection system for PCB manufacturing. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, \textbf{27}, 949--962 (2011)
\end{thebibliography}


• Did you run latex, then bibtex, then latex again (possibly twice)? – Édouard Oct 13 '13 at 8:59
• I tried it, still the same – hend Oct 13 '13 at 9:12
• As it stands, this is going to be hard to help with: we need a full example document to see what might be going wrong. – Joseph Wright Oct 13 '13 at 9:23

The arguments to \bibitem are

1. An optional “identification”
2. A mandatory key for reference

So with

\bibitem[KB]{Krippner-Beer2004} ...


you'd get

[KB]

when inputting \cite{Krippner-Beer2004}. The key is an arbitrary string that identifies univocally the item.

You probably don't want symbolic references, but numeric ones, so you shouldn't use the optional argument.

\begin{thebibliography}{4}

%references
\bibitem{KB2004} Krippner, P., Beer, D.: AOI testing positions in comparisons. Circuit Assembly, \textbf{15}, 26--32 (2004)

\bibitem{JWH2007} Jiang, B.C., Wang, C.C., Hsu, Y.N.: Machine vision and background remover-based approach for PCB solder joints inspection. International Journal of Production Research, \textbf{45}, 451--464 (2007)

\bibitem{ABF2006} Acciani, G., Brunetti, G., Fornarelli, G.: A multiple neural network system to classify solder joints on integrated circuits. International Journal of Computational Intelligence Research, \textbf{2}, 337--348 (2006)

\bibitem{MFY2011} Mar, N.S.S., Fookes, C., Yarlagadda, P.K.D.V.: Design and development of automatic visual inspection system for PCB manufacturing. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, \textbf{27}, 949--962 (2011)

\end{thebibliography}


and use \cite{MFY2011} when you want to cite the last paper. For a range, use

\cite{JWH2007}--\cite{MFY2011}


Unrelated, but important: it's

\abstract{Sirst paragraph

Second paragraph

\keywords{keywords}
}


and not

\begin{abstract}
first paragraph
\\
\keywords{keywords}
\end{abstract}


because \abstract is a command with argument and not an environment in svmult

• thanks , but for the keywords and abstract they discussed by commands in the springer reference guide as I wrote. Really thanks a lot for being so helpful and for the notes. – hend Oct 13 '13 at 15:17