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I am trying to reference labeled equations in a document but I am unsure if how to compile twice. Upon the first compilation I get (??) where all my references are. I followed this link: How to link an equation in LaTeX. I am using TeXworks on a MAC.

marked as duplicate by Benedikt Bauer, Guido, Red, Claudio Fiandrino, Stefan Kottwitz Oct 23 '13 at 12:54

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  • If you're able to compile, can you compile again yet you receive the same ??? – Werner Oct 23 '13 at 1:38
  • @user38771 I suggest you use latexmk if you don't want to worry about compiling twice, or even thrice. – logo_writer Mar 2 '16 at 17:10
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All that compiling twice means is that you basically need to run

latex latex_source_code.tex
latex latex_source_code.tex

or

pdflatex latex_source_code.tex
pdflatex latex_source_code.tex

in the shell somehow.

If you ever get into bibliographies you will need to run something like

pdflatex latex_source_code.tex
bibtex latex_source_code.aux
pdflatex latex_source_code.tex
pdflatex latex_source_code.tex

This is all that running twice (or four times) means. How you place these commands into the shell depends on your editor/IDE. For TeXworks, this means you'll either have to manually click on the typeset button multiple times, sometimes switching processing tools in the dropdown menu, or use some kind of automation tool like arara (my favorite) or latexmk or rubber.

No matter what you choose, this should eliminate the ??

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