# How to break long equations while keeping alignment?

I have the following long equations:

\documentclass[]{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\begin{document}

\begin{displaymath}
\begin{aligned}
(\chi_1|\chi_1)
&=\frac{1}{24}\left(\left(\chi_1(1)\right)^2+\left(\chi_1(b^2)\right)^2+2.\left(\chi_1(a)\right)^2+2.\left(\chi_1(a^3)\right)^2+2.\left(\chi_1(a^5)\right)^2+2.\left(\chi_1(a^2)\right)^2+2.\left(\chi_1(a^2b^2)\right)^2+6.\left(\chi_1(b)\right)^2+6.\left(\chi_1(ab)\right)^2\right)\\
&=\frac{1}{24}\left(\left(Sp(I_2)\right)^2+\left(Sp(B^2)\right)^2+2.\left(Sp(A_1)\right)^2+2.\left(Sp({A_1}^3)\right)^2+2.\left(Sp({A_1}^5)\right)^2+2.\left(Sp({A_1}^2)\right)^2+2.\left(Sp({A_1}^2B^2)\right)^2+6.\left(Sp(B)\right)^2+6.\left(Sp(A_1B)\right)^2\right)\\
\end{aligned}
\end{displaymath}

\end{document}


I'd like to break the equations and keep the "=" aligned.

I tried this:

\documentclass[]{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\begin{document}

\begin{displaymath}
\begin{aligned}
(\chi_1|\chi_1)
&=\frac{1}{24}\left(\left(\chi_1(1)\right)^2+\left(\chi_1(b^2)\right)^2+2.\left(\chi_1(a)\right)^2+2.\left(\chi_1(a^3)\right)^2+2.\left(\chi_1(a^5)\right)^2+2.\left(\chi_1(a^2)\right)^2\\
& +2.\left(\chi_1(a^2b^2)\right)^2+6.\left(\chi_1(b)\right)^2+6.\left(\chi_1(ab)\right)^2\right)\\
&=\frac{1}{24}\left(\left(Sp(I_2)\right)^2+\left(Sp(B^2)\right)^2+2.\left(Sp(A_1)\right)^2+2.\left(Sp({A_1}^3)\right)^2+2.\left(Sp({A_1}^5)\right)^2+\\
& 2.\left(Sp({A_1}^2)\right)^2+2.\left(Sp({A_1}^2B^2)\right)^2+6.\left(Sp(B)\right)^2+6.\left(Sp(A_1B)\right)^2\right)\\
\end{aligned}
\end{displaymath}

\end{document}


But that ruins my bracket structure. In the end, I'd like to have something like this (of course the brackets don't have the correct height in the image): Mind that the second part of the equation has to start from the first big bracket.

How can I do this?

• Possible duplicate: tex.stackexchange.com/questions/8936/… – Ruben Nov 1 '13 at 14:44
• @Ruben: the split environment doesn't work (or I don't know how to use it): the brackets are still not correct. And how should I provide the alignement with the first big bracket? – Jeroen Nov 1 '13 at 14:52
• In my eyes, that’s not the correct duplicate. But this and one of its many linked question should help (or not): How to make \left, \right pairs of delimiter work over multiple lines? Though in your case, I’d just use [ and ] in their natural case, no need for \left and \right really. – Qrrbrbirlbel Nov 1 '13 at 15:43
• By the way, for one equation on multiple lines with aligning, it is best to use the equation (or equation*) with the split environment. – Qrrbrbirlbel Nov 1 '13 at 15:53

I would suggest you make several changes. The first one will fix the error messages you're getting; the remaining ones should help make it easier for your readers to parse the material in the equations.

• You can't have a \left( ... \right) pair crossing a line break. In the first and third lines of the equation construct, replace the first \left( with \Big[, and in the second and fourth lines replace \right) with \Big].

• The remaining \left( ... \right) pairs -- I believe there are 18 of them... -- currently generate parentheses of varying sizes. This happens because not all of the expressions they enclose are large enough to trigger an increase in the size of the fences beyond the basic size. I suggest you change all 18 remaining \left( instructions to \bigl(, and all 18 remaining \right) instructions to \bigr). This will ensure consistent sizing.

• The Sp terms in the third and fourth lines are probably math operators, right? If so, they should be typeset in an upright rather than italic font.

• In the first set of two lines, the first line has 6 additive terms and the second has 3; in the second set of two lines, the lines have 5 and 4 additive terms, respectively. I suggest you use the same number of terms across the two sets.

• Use \mid instead of | in the left-hand term. This will provide a bit of spacing around the vertical bar.

• To indicate multiplication, don't use a "dot". Use either \cdot or (better yet) omit the dots entirely.

• To provide some visual grouping, it's a good idea to indent the 2nd and 4th lines a bit relative to the 1st and 3rd lines. In the example below I use \qquad to indent the two lines; if that's not enough for you, you could try \qquad\quad.

• Last but not least, since you're already using the amsmath package, use the align* environment instead of nested displaymath and aligned environments. \documentclass[]{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\DeclareMathOperator{\Sp}{Sp}
\begin{document}
\begin{align*}
(\chi_1\mid \chi_1)
&=\frac{1}{24}\Big[\bigl(\chi_1(1)\bigr)^2+\bigl(\chi_1(b^2)\bigr)^2+2\bigl(\chi_1(a)\bigr)^2+2\bigl(\chi_1(a^3)\bigr)^2+2\bigl(\chi_1(a^5)\bigr)^2\\
&=\frac{1}{24}\Big[\bigl(\Sp(I_2)\bigr)^2+\bigl(\Sp(B^2)\bigr)^2+2\bigl(\Sp(A_1)\bigr)^2+2\bigl(\Sp({A_1}^3)\bigr)^2+2\bigl(\Sp({A_1}^5)\bigr)^2\\
\end{align*}
\end{document}


You can use \phantoms to move yourself into the correct spot, and avoid bracket-complications by using the "big" alternatives: \documentclass{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}% http://ctan.org/pkg/amsmath
\newcommand{\FaSymb}{\chi_1}\newcommand{\FbSymb}{\text{Sp}}
\newcommand{\Fa}{\FaSymb(#1)}
\newcommand{\Fb}{\FbSymb(#1)}
\begin{document}

\begin{align*}
(\FaSymb \mid \FaSymb)
& = \tfrac{1}{24}
\Bigl(\bigl(\Fa{1}\bigr)^2
+ \bigl(\Fa{b^2}\bigr)^2
+ 2\bigl(\Fa{a}\bigr)^2
+ 2\bigl(\Fa{a^3}\bigr)^2
+ 2\bigl(\Fa{a^5}\bigr)^2
+ 2\bigl(\Fa{a^2}\bigr)^2 \\
& \phantom{=\tfrac{1}{24}\Bigl(} + 2\bigl(\Fa{a^2b^2}\bigr)^2
+ 6\bigl(\Fa{b}\bigr)^2
+ 6\bigl(\Fa{ab}\bigr)^2\Bigr) \\
& = \tfrac{1}{24}
\Bigl(\bigl(\Fb{I_2}\bigr)^2
+ \bigl(\Fb{B^2}\bigr)^2
+ 2\bigl(\Fb{A_1}\bigr)^2
+ 2\bigl(\Fb{A_1^3}\bigr)^2
+ 2\bigl(\Fb{A_1^5}\bigr)^2 \\
& \phantom{=\tfrac{1}{24}\Bigl(} + 2\bigl(\Fb{A_1^2}\bigr)^2
+ 2\bigl(\Fb{A_1^2B^2}\bigr)^2
+ 6\bigl(\Fb{B}\bigr)^2
+ 6\bigl(\Fb{A_1B}\bigr)^2\Bigr)
\end{align*}

\end{document}


I defined \Fa and \Fb to promote consistency.

Your second attempt didn't work because every \left has to be paired up with \right on the same line. To fix this, you can just use \Bigl( and \Bigr) instead. To get the alignment right, you can use the IEEEtrantools package (see Section 3.5.2):

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage[retainorgcmds]{IEEEtrantools}

\begin{document}
\begin{IEEEeqnarray*}{rClCl}
(\chi_1|\chi_1)
&=& \frac{1}{24}
\Bigl(
\left(\chi_1(1)\right)^2
&+&\left(\chi_1(b^2)\right)^2
+2.\left(\chi_1(a)\right)^2
+2.\left(\chi_1(a^3)\right)^2
+2.\left(\chi_1(a^5)\right)^2 \\
& & &+&2.\left(\chi_1(a^2)\right)^2
+2.\left(\chi_1(a^2b^2)\right)^2
+6.\left(\chi_1(b)\right)^2
+6.\left(\chi_1(ab)\right)^2
\Bigr) \\
&=& \frac{1}{24}
\Bigl(
\left(Sp(I_2)\right)^2
&+&\left(Sp(B^2)\right)^2
+2.\left(Sp(A_1)\right)^2
+2.\left(Sp({A_1}^3)\right)^2
+2.\left(Sp({A_1}^5)\right)^2 \\
& & &+&2.\left(Sp({A_1}^2)\right)^2
+2.\left(Sp({A_1}^2B^2)\right)^2
+6.\left(Sp(B)\right)^2
+6.\left(Sp(A_1B)\right)^2
\Bigr)
\end{IEEEeqnarray*}
\end{document} 