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Usually the section headers of apa6documents are sans-serif and bold. I needed them not bold so I redefined all sections/subsections like this to meet my criteria:

\documentclass[man,12pt,a4paper,noextraspace,donotrepeattitle,longtable]{apa6} % 12 pt., doppelter Zeilenabstand usw.

\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc} % für ä,ö,ü,Ä,Ö,Ü,ß usw.

\usepackage[english,ngerman]{babel}

\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}      % für exakte Darstellung von Umlauten wie Ä

\usepackage{lmodern}

\usepackage{lipsum}           % Dummy-Text
\setlipsumdefault{8}          % Standard-Einstellung: Verwendung nur eines Lipsum-Paragraphs (in diesem Fall des achten)

%\usepackage{longtable}
\setlength{\LTleft}{0pt}      % linksbündige Tabellen (longtable)

\usepackage{etoolbox}

\usepackage{environ}

\usepackage{booktabs}

%\let\tnote\relax             % Freigabe des \tnote Befehls für ctable

%\usepackage{ctable}

\usepackage{threeparttable}

\usepackage{threeparttablex}

\usepackage{textgreek}        % griechische Buchstaben im Text-Modus

\usepackage{enumerate}

\makeatletter
\renewcommand{\section}{\@startsection {section}{1}
  {\z@}
  {\b@level@one@skip}
  {\e@level@one@skip}
  {\centering\normalfont\normalsize}}
\renewcommand{\subsection}{\@startsection{subsection}{2}
  {\z@}
  {\b@level@two@skip}
  {\e@level@two@skip}
  {\centering\normalfont\normalsize\itshape}}
\renewcommand{\subsubsection}{\@startsection{subsubsection}{3}
  {\z@}
  {\b@level@two@skip}
  {\e@level@two@skip}
  {\normalfont\normalsize\itshape}}
\renewcommand{\paragraph}{\@startsection{paragraph}{4}{\parindent}%
  {0\baselineskip \@plus 0.2ex \@minus 0.2ex}%
  {-1em}%
  {\normalfont\normalsize\itshape\addperi}}
\makeatother

However, recently I discovered that my format requirements are that section headers and figure captions should be in a sans-serif font (I'd prefer Helvetica) which there are not after the above customizations. If I try the \helvetica command in the preamble, the log says it is ignored and I should use the helv document class option. If I use that option, all text in the document is helvetica, but I need the text to be in times new roman.

How do I modify the section headers to helvetica font while the document text remains in times?

And what about figure captions?

1

Ok, in the meanwhile I found out about these things, maybe it helps somebody else:

First, you have to use \usepackage[scaled=.92]{helvet} for helvetica font (scaled to meet times new roman font size in this case).

Then, you have to specify a command for helvetica font (\myfont in this case):

\newcommand*{\myfont}{\fontfamily{phv}\selectfont}

Then, for the section headers (similar for subsections etc.):

\makeatletter
\renewcommand{\section}{\@startsection {section}{1}
  {\z@}
  {\b@level@one@skip}
  {\e@level@one@skip}
  {\centering\normalfont\normalsize\myfont}}
\makeatother

This code is my particular formatting, though. But the \myfont matters.

Abstract and Appendix headings using etoolbox package (automatically loaded by apa6.cls):

\patchcmd{\maketitle}{\abstractname}{{\myfont Abstract}}{}{}  % you also can rename your abstract heading here

\patchcmd{\appendix}{\appendixname}{{\myfont Appendix}}{}{}   % you also can rename your appendix heading here

Bibliography heading (using biblatex, code has to be put after loading the biblatex package):

\DefineBibliographyStrings{ngerman}{             
  references = {{\myfont References}}  % you also can rename your bibliography heading here
}

Everything is put in the preamble of course.

I haven't tried it yet, but I think {\myfont <caption text>} should work for figure captions.

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