I would like to implement a queue in the following way. A macro (variable?) \queue holds a string that may contain dots. Substrings separated by dots are the elements of the queue. Hence, the string "a.b.c" represents a queue with 3 elements, namely "a", "b" and "c". Then I want to define a macro that receives a queue as paramenter and return the queue without the first element.

When I define it as


(without any blank spaces in the line above) or

\def\firstout #1.#2{#2}

(with one or several blank spaces between \firstout and #1.#2{#2}) it works well, that is, the following code returns "b.c" as desired:


But, if I define it as

\def\firstout#1.#2 {#2}

(with a blank between \def\firstout#1.#2 and {#2}) or

\def\firstout #1.#2 {#2}

(with a blank after \def\firstout and another after #1.#2) then I receive the following error when I try to execute \expandafter\firstout\queue:

Paragraph ended before \firstout was complete.

Why? What is the role of those blank spaces? If possible, please refer to some documentation also.

Note: I am using TeXMaker on MikiTeX.

  • 1
    You're using the wrong approach anyway: what if \queue expands to X without periods? – egreg Nov 19 '13 at 18:13
  • in your example when you say it returns b.c as desired, in fact it returns b and .c is left in the stream, so b.c is printed, but #2 never was b.c and for that matter you could have defined \def\firstout #1.{} for the same effect. (notwithstanding egreg's relevant other remark). – user4686 Nov 19 '13 at 18:20
  • @egreg Yes, you are right. But I should confess that I would like to understand the blank space issue. – Franc Nov 20 '13 at 2:35
  • @jfbu Thank you, jfbu. Well, as you noted, I am new to TeX. I do not have sufficient background to understand the stream issue. I will try to learn about it. By the way, how can I force #2 to be b.c? – Franc Nov 20 '13 at 2:38
  • 1
    @Franc for #2 to be b.c you need something like \def\firstout #1.#2\queueend {#2} (recall the space of the control word is not significant) and either have \def\queue {a.b.c.\queueend} and \expandafter\firstout\queue or \def\queue {a.b.c.} and \expandafter\firstout\queue\queueend. And I have added a . after the last element of \queue (egreg's remark). The control word \queueend may be anything not encountered in the queue elements; for example you may use \firstout itself to avoid a new entry in the TeX hash table (or a ; perhaps). texdoc topic – user4686 Nov 20 '13 at 7:33

What are used in the macro definitions are tokens not characters in the input file. The space after a command name is taken as ending the command name token and is never itself tokenised. \firstout is one token. The csname token with name firstout. Conversely a space character after #2 is tokenised as a character token and so #2 becomes a delimited argument delimited by space, just as #1 is a delimited argument delimited by . .

  • Thank you David! I got it. Do you know what is the reference for token definition? – Franc Nov 19 '13 at 17:34
  • 1
    @Franc the TeXBook has the full spec for TeX's parser. – David Carlisle Nov 19 '13 at 17:36

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