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When I set my papers, it sometimes happens that the last line of a paragraph is very short, in extreme cases just a single word, perhaps a page number.

I have set \clubpenalty to 10000, of course, and tried to adjust spacing with \looseness=-1. Even so, I sometimes have to resort to \rlap{}, bleeding into the right margin, as it were. (See the line immedaitely below the image in the attached image).

Is there a way to do this automatically, i.e. for a very short line?

enter image description here

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    Bleeding is typographically much worse than orphaning. In your case, I would suggest you to reword the text so that it's a bit longer and the whole Bedeutung~\cite[...]{...} moves to the next line. Or to reword is so that it's a bit shorter. And btw, do you use \usepackage{microtype}? It might help as well. – yo' Dec 5 '13 at 12:53
  • This is just an example. I could certainly reword, or perhaps use another footnote, but I'm interested in a possible solution to the problem regardless. – Ingmar Dec 5 '13 at 12:54
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    You can set \parfillskip to 0pt plus some value below \lineskip. This will make sure the last line of the paragraph doesn't get too short. I don't think it will bleed into the margin; using microtype will make sure everything is rearranged approriately. – Stephan Lehmke Dec 5 '13 at 13:04
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    @Ingmar The issue is that this problem has no general solution. No matter what others claim (MS Word, Patoline, ...), it is impossible to some situations to get a reasonable automated results, and if you're not allowed to reword, some paragraphs will look bad, no matter what you do. – yo' Dec 5 '13 at 13:40
  • BTW, \clubpenalty refers to the first line of a paragraph. I think we mean \widowpenalty here. While there is disagreement on the meaning of "widows" and "orphans", Knuth uses "orphan" to refer to a page break after the first line of a paragraph and "widow" for a break before the last line. – Dan Dec 5 '13 at 22:17
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LaTeX is not capable of automated solution for your problem. You can always need to observe the log for bad boxes. You have several options for solutions:

  • re-word the text (preferred solution)

  • try to use {\sloppy Your problematic paragraph.\par} or the sloppypar einvironment (reasonable solution)

  • allow a widow or an orphan (reasonable solution)

  • force an overfull line (bad solution)

What you do is in the end up to you, but you've been warned.

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