I am having issues with trying to compile a bibliography using TexMaker (I'm very new to LaTex). I have found multiple Google hits with the same error message as I've been having all day

The top-level auxiliary file:..... I found no \bibdata command-"

and I found a walkthrough using biblatex from Cambridge University


but I still can't compile the bibliography for some reason. This is my MWE:




The refs.bib is as follows.


   AUTHOR  = "Kernighan, Brian W. and Ritchie, Dennis M.",
   TITLE   = "{The C Programming Language Second Edition}",
   PUBLISHER = "Prentice-Hall, Inc.",
   YEAR = 1988

I perform PDFLatex -> Bibtex -> PDFLatex -> PDFLatex. During the first PDFLatex I get the following error message.

No "backend" specified, using Biber backend.
Citation 'KandR' on page 1 undefined
Empty bibliography
>There were undefined references.
Please (re)run Biber on the file:(biblatex) test1(biblatex) and rerun LaTeX afterwards.

and the error message associated with BibTex

Process started
This is BibTeX, Version 0.99d (MiKTeX 2.9) The top-level auxiliary file: test1.aux I
found no \citation commands---while reading file test1.aux I found no \bibdata command---
while reading file test1.aux I found no \bibstyle command---while reading file test1.aux
(There were 3 error messages)
Process exited normally

Am I missing something?

  • It seems that you are using bibtex during compilation. biblatex uses biber by default. Use \usepackage[backend=bibtex]{biblatex} instead of \usepackage{biblatex}
    – user11232
    Jan 11, 2014 at 0:45
  • Or run biber where that guide tells you to run bibtex. biber is newer and supports features of biblatex not possible with bibtex so use biber if it is available.
    – cfr
    Jan 11, 2014 at 0:58

1 Answer 1


The error

No "backend" specified, using Biber backend.

gives the hint that biblatex is using biber. But you are using bibtex during compilation. biblatex uses biber by default (when no backend is specified). You can over come this by using


to force biblatex use bibtex as the backend.

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