I'm using natbib and the apj style file, and when the bibliography compiles it shows "and" in the author list (and in journal abbreviations) instead of "&". How do I change that so it shows "&"?

  • 1
    Welcome to TeX SE. Could you post a Minimal Working Example showing what you are trying to do? I can't find apj.bst on ctan and it doesn't seem to have been in TeX Live 2011, 2012 or 2013 so I don't really have a clue what you're talking about. Do you expect &? Is that what the documentation says it will do? All the styles I've used use and but I'm sure some do things differently.
    – cfr
    Mar 1, 2014 at 2:27

1 Answer 1


that is hardcoded in the bst file, Copy it to myapj.bst and replace

FUNCTION {bbl.and}
{ "and"}


FUNCTION {bbl.and}
{ "\&"}

and use in your document \bibliographystyle{myapj.bst}. The file myapj.bst can be saved in the documents directory or in your local bibtex/bst path, if available.

As an alternative use another harvard style like apsr.bst or agsm.bst, then you can write after loading natbib


That bibstyles are part of TeXLive and MikTeX.

  • A minor typo, the command after loading natbib should be as follows to get the citations and bibliography to show & instead of and. \newcommand\harvardand{\&} @Herbert
    – Aldoaldo
    Oct 23, 2015 at 17:36
  • you're right, because natbib uses \AtBeginDocument for the definition of \harvardand. The reason why it is not known in the preamble. I'll correct it.
    – user2478
    Oct 23, 2015 at 17:53

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .