7

I use MacTex2011 distribution with BibDesk. I wrote a paper in documentclass{article}. For quotations, I'd have wanted it to output "FirstAuthor et al., year" for all references with more than 2 authors. However, it behaves quite strangely - for 3-author papers, sometimes it outputs all the names, some other times just FirstAuthor et al. Any idea why this could be, and how I might solve it?

Many thanks!

\documentclass[10pt,letterpaper]{article}

\usepackage{cogsci}
\usepackage{pslatex}
\usepackage{apacite} 
\begin{document}
\bibliographystyle{apacite}

\setlength{\bibleftmargin}{.125in}
\setlength{\bibindent}{-\bibleftmargin}
\bibliography{CogSci_Template2}
\end{document} 

Here are the contents of CogSci_Template2.bib:

@incollection{antibayes,
Address = {Cambridge},
Author = {G. Baggio and K. Stenning and M. van Lambalgen},
Booktitle = {Cambridge {H}andbook of {F}ormal {S}emantics},
Date-Added = {2014-02-06 15:25:25 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-06 15:28:59 +0100},
Editor = {M. Aloni and P. Dekker},
Publisher = {Cambridge {U}niversity {P}ress},
Title = {The {C}ognitive {I}nterface},
Year = {in press}}

@article{pijnacker2,
Author = {J. Pijnacker and B. Geurts and M. van Lambalgen and J. Buitelaar and P. Hagoort},
Date-Added = {2014-02-06 15:14:32 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-06 15:17:39 +0100},
Journal = {Journal of {C}ognitive {N}euroscience},
Number = {2},
Pages = {471--480},
Title = {Reasoning with Exceptions: An Event-related Brain Potentials Study},
Volume = {23},
Year = {2010}}

@article{pijnacker,
Author = {J. Pijnacker and B. Geurts and M. van Lambalgen and C. Kan and J.K. Buitelaar and P. Hagoort},
Date-Added = {2014-02-06 14:37:10 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-06 14:39:00 +0100},
Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
Number = {644--651},
Title = {Defeasible reasoning in high-functioning adults with autism: Evidence for impaired exception handling},
Volume = {47},
Year = {2009}}

@article{baggio,
Author = {R. Baggio and M. van Lambalgen and P. Hagoort},
Date-Added = {2014-02-06 14:22:28 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-06 14:24:02 +0100},
Journal = {Journal of {M}emory and {L}anguage},
Pages = {36--53},
Title = {Computing and recomputing discourse models: An {ERP} study},
Volume = {59},
Year = {2008}}

@inproceedings{kowalski_sadri,
Author = {R. Kowalski and F. Sadri},
Booktitle = {Web Reasoning and Rule Systems},
Date-Added = {2014-02-05 15:43:59 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-05 16:29:50 +0100},
Editor = {Polleres, Axel and Swift, Terrance},
Pages = {1--23},
Publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
Series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
Title = {Integrating Logic Programming and Production Systems in Abductive Logic Programming Agents},
Volume = {5837},
Year = {2009}}

@book{anderson,
Address = {Mahwah, New Jersey},
Author = {J. R. Anderson},
Date-Added = {2014-02-05 15:27:59 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-05 16:10:22 +0100},
Publisher = {Lawrence {E}rlbaum {A}ssociates},
Title = {The architecture of cognition},
Year = {1983}}

@article{simul2,
Author = {V. Gallese and A. Goldman},
Date-Added = {2014-02-03 19:31:33 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-03 19:32:35 +0100},
Journal = {Trends in {C}ognitive {S}ciences},
Number = {12},
Pages = {493--501},
Title = {Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading},
Volume = {2},
Year = {1998}}

@article{simul,
Author = {K. Zentgraf and J. Munzert and M. Bischoff and R.D. Newman-Norlund},
Date-Added = {2014-02-03 19:25:43 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-03 19:27:24 +0100},
Journal = {Vision {R}esearch},
Pages = {827--835},
Title = {Simulation during observation of human actions -- Theories, empirical studies, applications},
Volume = {51},
Year = {2011}}

@incollection{integrity_const,
Author = {Godfrey, P. and Grant, J. and Gryz, J. and Minker, J.},
Booktitle = {Logics for {D}atabases and {I}nformation {S}ystems},
Date-Added = {2014-02-03 15:27:38 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-08 11:53:32 +0100},
Editor = {Chomicki, J. and Saake, G.},
Pages = {265--306},
Publisher = {Springer {US}},
Series = {The {K}luwer {I}nternational {S}eries in {E}ngineering and {C}omputer {S}cience},
Title = {Integrity Constraints: Semantics and Applications},
Volume = {436},
Year = {1998},}

@inproceedings{reiterIC,
Address = {{S}an {F}rancisco, {CA}, {USA}},
Author = {Reiter, R.},
Booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2nd conference on {T}heoretical {A}spects of {R}easoning about {K}nowledge, {TARK}'88},
Date-Added = {2014-02-03 15:27:27 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-05 17:29:27 +0100},
Keywords = {integrity constraints, epistemic},
Pages = {97--111},
Publisher = {Morgan {K}aufmann {P}ublishers},
Title = {On integrity constraints},
Year = {1988}}

@article{etzioni_cwr,
Author = {Etzioni, O. and Golden, K. and Weld, D.S.},
Date-Added = {2014-02-03 12:37:30 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-03 23:49:41 +0100},
Journal = {Artificial {I}ntelligence},
Keywords = {closed world reasoning, planning algorithms},
Number = {1--2},
Pages = {113--148},
Title = {Sound and efficient closed-world reasoning for planning},
Volume = {89},
Year = {1997}}

@article{lifschitz2002,
Author = {Lifschitz, V.},
Date-Added = {2014-02-03 12:36:43 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-03 12:36:43 +0100},
Journal = {Artificial {I}ntelligence},
Keywords = {planning, nonmonotonic reasoning},
Month = {June},
Number = {1--2},
Pages = {39--54},
Title = {Answer set programming and plan generation},
Volume = {138},
Year = {2002}}

@article{estefania,
Author = {E. L. Gazzo-Casta{\~n}eda and M. Knauff},
Date-Added = {2014-02-01 03:20:17 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-03 15:34:02 +0100},
Journal = {Submitted for publication},
Title = {Defeasibility and the role of counterexamples in reasoning with legal conditionals}}

@article{beller,
Author = {S. Beller},
Date-Added = {2014-01-31 16:47:38 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-31 16:50:29 +0100},
Journal = {Thinking \& Reasoning},
Number = {4},
Pages = {305--341},
Title = {Deontic norms, deontic reasoning, and deontic conditionals},
Volume = {14},
Year = {2008}}

@article{paulus_kiraly,
Author = {M. Paulus and I. Kir\'{a}ly},
Date-Added = {2014-01-31 16:16:10 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-31 16:17:44 +0100},
Journal = {Journal of {E}xperimental {C}hild {P}sychology},
Number = {2},
Pages = {407--414},
Title = {Early rationality in action perception and production? A theoretical exposition},
Volume = {116},
Year = {2013}}

@article{luo_baillargeon,
Author = {Y. Luo and R. Baillargeon},
Date-Added = {2014-01-31 16:08:03 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-31 16:12:03 +0100},
Journal = {Psychological {S}cience},
Number = {8},
Pages = {601--608},
Title = {Can a Self-Propelled Box Have a Goal?: Psychological Reasoning in 5-Month-Old Infants},
Volume = {16},
Year = {2005}}

@inproceedings{baker_tenenbaum_saxe06,
Author = {C. L. Baker and J. Tenenbaum and R. Saxe},
Booktitle = {Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems},
Date-Added = {2014-01-30 12:16:28 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-01 00:11:49 +0100},
Publisher = {MIT Press},
Title = {Bayesian models of human action understanding},
Volume = {18},
Year = {2006}}

@article{baker_saxe_tenenbaum09,
Author = {C. L. Baker and J. Tenenbaum and R. Saxe},
Date-Added = {2014-01-30 12:11:35 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-05 23:44:19 +0100},
Journal = {Cognition},
Number = {3},
Pages = {329--349},
Title = {Action Understanding as Inverse Planning},
Volume = {113},
Year = {2009}}

@article{lombrozo_carey,
Author = {T. Lombrozo and S. Carey},
Date-Added = {2014-01-30 11:55:36 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-30 11:56:51 +0100},
Journal = {Cognition},
Number = {2},
Pages = {167--204},
Title = {Functional explanation and the function of explanation},
Volume = {99},
Year = {2006}}

@article{csibra_gergely07,
Author = {Csibra, G. and Gergely, G.},
Date-Added = {2014-01-30 11:53:57 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-31 11:19:59 +0100},
Journal = {Acta {P}sychologica},
Keywords = {teleological reasoning, inverse problem, prediction, means selection},
Number = {1},
Pages = {60--78},
Title = {`{O}bsessed with goals': Functions and mechanisms of teleological interpretation of actions in humans},
Volume = {124},
Year = {2007}}

@article{causality_infancy,
Author = {Saxe, R. and Carey, S.},
Date-Added = {2014-01-29 19:08:02 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-31 11:20:20 +0100},
Journal = {Acta {P}sychologica},
Keywords = {Cause; Infancy; Empiricism; Rationalism; Innateness; Intervention},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {144--165},
Title = {The perception of causality in infancy},
Volume = {123},
Year = {2006}}

@inproceedings{mccarthy_hayes_philosAI,
Author = {McCarthy, J. and Hayes, P.},
Booktitle = {Machine {I}ntelligence},
Date-Added = {2014-01-29 16:37:34 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-01 00:55:14 +0100},
Editor = {B. Meltzer and D. Michie},
Pages = {463--502},
Publisher = {Edinburgh {U}niversity {P}ress},
Title = {Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence},
Volume = {4},
Year = {1969}}

@book{kowalski2011,
Address = {{N}ew {Y}ork},
Author = {Kowalski, R.},
Date-Added = {2014-01-29 16:36:59 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-05 16:38:25 +0100},
Keywords = {computational logic, proactive agents, reasoning},
Publisher = {Cambridge {U}niversity {P}ress},
Read = {0},
Title = {Computational Logic and Human Thinking: How to be Artificially Intelligent},
Year = {2011}}

@book{mueller_commonsense,
Address = {{S}an {F}rancisco, {CA}},
Author = {Mueller, E.T.},
Date-Added = {2014-01-29 16:11:31 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-05 17:35:16 +0100},
Publisher = {Morgan {K}aufmann {P}ublishers},
Title = {Commonsense {R}easoning},
Year = {2006}}

@inproceedings{williams81,
Address = {Cambridge},
Author = {Williams, B.},
Booktitle = {{M}oral {Lu}ck},
Date-Added = {2014-01-29 15:45:40 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-05 17:28:16 +0100},
Editor = {Williams, B.},
Pages = {101--113},
Publisher = {Cambridge {U}niversity {P}ress},
Title = {Internal and {E}xternal {R}easons},
Year = {1981}}

@article{braas,
Author = {M. Brass and R.M. Schmitt and S. Spengler and G. Gergely},
Date-Added = {2014-01-27 00:01:07 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-31 11:20:30 +0100},
Journal = {Current {B}iology},
Number = {24},
Pages = {2117--2121},
Title = {Investigating Action Understanding: Inferential Processes versus Action Simulation},
Volume = {17},
Year = {2007}}

@article{pollock97,
Author = {J. Pollock},
Date-Added = {2014-01-26 23:49:36 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-31 11:18:59 +0100},
Journal = {Nous},
Number = {2},
Pages = {143--169},
Title = {Reasoning about change and persistence: A solution to the frame problem},
Volume = {31},
Year = {1997}}

@book{pollock95,
Address = {{MA}, {USA}},
Author = {Pollock, J.L.},
Date-Added = {2014-01-26 23:49:08 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-05 17:30:05 +0100},
Publisher = {{MIT} {P}ress {C}ambridge},
Title = {Cognitive {C}arpentry: A {B}lueprint for {H}ow to {B}uild a {P}erson},
Year = {1995}}

@article{hickok,
Author = {G. Hickok},
Date-Added = {2014-01-26 23:46:54 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-31 11:19:43 +0100},
Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
Number = {7},
Pages = {1229--1243},
Title = {Eight Problems for the Mirror Neuron Theory of Action Understanding in Monkeys and Humans},
Volume = {21},
Year = {2009}}

@article{nature2002,
Author = {Gergely, G. and Bekkering, H. and Kir\'{a}ly, I.},
Date-Added = {2014-01-26 23:43:16 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-26 23:43:16 +0100},
Journal = {Nature},
Keywords = {rational, selective imitation},
Pages = {755},
Title = {Rational imitation in preverbal infants},
Volume = {415},
Year = {2002}}

@article{kiraly2013,
Author = {Kir\'{a}ly, I. and Csibra, G. and Gergely, G.},
Date-Added = {2014-01-26 23:41:16 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-31 11:19:33 +0100},
Journal = {Journal of {E}xperimental {C}hild {P}sychology},
Number = {2},
Pages = {471--486},
Title = {Beyond rational imitation: Learning arbitrary means actions from communicative demonstrations},
Volume = {116},
Year = {2013}}

@book{PToE,
Address = {Malden},
Author = {van Lambalgen, M. and Hamm, F.},
Date-Added = {2014-01-26 23:40:14 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-01 01:57:52 +0100},
Publisher = {Blackwell {P}ublishing},
Title = {The {P}roper {T}reatment of {E}vents},
Year = {2005}}

@book{HRCS,
Author = {Stenning, K. and van Lambalgen, M.},
Date-Added = {2014-01-26 23:39:49 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-26 23:39:49 +0100},
Keywords = {closed world reasoning, neural networks, wason task},
Publisher = {Bradford {B}ook, {T}he {MIT} {P}ress, {C}ambridge, {M}assachussets},
Title = {Human {R}easoning and {C}ognitive {S}cience},
Year = {2008}}

@phdthesis{ada_doc,
Author = {A. Varga},
Date-Added = {2014-01-11 09:20:59 +0100},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-11 09:24:15 +0100},
School = {Department of Philosophy, Central European University, Budapest},
Title = {A Formal Model of Infants' Acquisition of Practical Knowledge from Observation},
Type = {Doctoral dissertation},
Year = {2013}}

@article{chater_vitany,
Author = {N. Chater and P. Vitanyi},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-31 11:20:09 +0100},
Journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
Number = {1},
Pages = {19--22},
Title = {Simplicity: a unifying principle in cognitive science?},
Volume = 7,
Year = 2003}

@phdthesis{varga,
Author = {A. Varga},
Date-Modified = {2014-01-26 23:34:02 +0100},
School = {Department of Philosophy, Central European University, Budapest},
Title = {A Formal Model of Infants' Acquisition of Practical Knowledge from Observation},
Type = {Doctoral dissertation},
Year = {2013}}

@book{schueler2005,
Address = {New York, NY},
Author = {G.F. Schueler},
Date-Modified = {2014-02-05 17:34:27 +0100},
Publisher = {Oxford University Press Inc.},
Title = {Reasons and Purposes: Human Rationality and the Teleological Explanation of Action},
Year = 2003}
10
  • 1
    In particular, please be sure to indicate which bibliography style file you use and if you load a citation management package such as natbib or harvard.
    – Mico
    Commented Apr 10, 2014 at 10:06
  • 1
    Please edit your question to include the code as that is much easier to read. See the link @tohecz posted for details on how to construct an MWE.
    – cfr
    Commented Apr 11, 2014 at 14:47
  • 1
    Would you be able to post the proper code here? Including the .bib file (not just a screen shot of it).
    – moewe
    Commented Apr 11, 2014 at 14:47
  • 2
    @Ada Sorry for disturbing you once more, but the letter 'M' in 'MWE' stands for 'minimal'. Does a 30kB file look like a minimal example that illustrates the problem?
    – yo'
    Commented Apr 11, 2014 at 16:00
  • 1
    That document is not really minimal. Could you cut down your .bib file?
    – moewe
    Commented Apr 11, 2014 at 16:00

1 Answer 1

12

Your example code shows you use the apacite package and associated apacite bibliography style, which implement referencing and citing according to the conventions of the APA (American Psychological Association) manual, 6th ed.

Addendum Nov. 2021: The 6th edition is no longer the most recent, or current, version of the APA formatting guidelines. If you need to format the bibliography according to the 7th edition of the APA manual, you'll need to switch to biblatex, as there is (at present) no BibTeX-based implementation of the newer guidelines.

According to the 6th edition of the APA manual, the following guidelines must be followed when referencing and citing entries with multiple authors:

For the bibliography section:

  • If there are up to seven [7] authors, all of them must be listed.

  • With eight or more authors, the first six should be listed, followed by dots (...), followed by the name of the final author.

For citations:

  • With one or two authors, all should be listed in each citation call-out.

  • If a piece has six or more authors, the recommended citation call-out is FirstAuthor et al. for all citation instances.

  • With three to five authors, the full list is included the first time the piece is cited; subsequent citations should use FirstAuthor et al.

  • The preceding convention can be overridden on a case-by-case basis using the commands \fullcite and \shortcite, resp.

You also asked:

For quotations, I'd have wanted it to output "FirstAuthor et al., year" for all references with more than 2 authors. However, it behaves quite strangely - for 3-author papers, sometimes it outputs all the names, some other times just FirstAuthor et al. Any idea why this could be[?]

Not having an actual document of your's available to study, the following is just a hunch: I'm guessing that you're observing that when some citations of pieces with three to five authors are repeated, you're getting the FirstAuthor et al look. In contrast, first-time citations of entries with three to five authors end up with all authors being listed.


The following MWE shows that the apacite package and associated apacite bibliography style implement the requirements laid out in the APA manual. (Actually, since none of the entries you provided have more than seven authors, the rendering of entries with eight and more authors is left to the reader as an optional exercise.)

enter image description here

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{cogsci,pslatex,apacite} 
\bibliographystyle{apacite}
\setlength\parindent{0pt} % just for this example
\begin{document}
\cite{anderson}

\cite{anderson}


\cite{chater_vitany}

\cite{chater_vitany}


\shortcite{baggio}

\fullcite{baggio}


\cite{braas}

\cite{braas}

\fullcite{braas}

\bibliography{test} % 'test.bib' provided in the original posting
\end{document} 
5
  • many many thanks! and sorry for the novice retard kind of questions & question-asking-lack-of-method
    – Ada
    Commented Apr 12, 2014 at 10:42
  • @Ada - you're welcome! If you think I've addressed your questions successfully, feel free to upvote and/or accept my answer. ;-)
    – Mico
    Commented Apr 12, 2014 at 10:52
  • this was the first thing I tried to do after reading your answer, just that apparently i can't upvote unless i myself have 15 reputation, which i don't... or am i getting things wrong again? if so, please do tell me
    – Ada
    Commented Apr 12, 2014 at 21:38
  • How can I do an narrative citation - Author (YEAR) - with apacite ?
    – RxT
    Commented Apr 21, 2021 at 21:58
  • @RxT - Have you considered reading section 4 of the package's user guide?
    – Mico
    Commented Apr 22, 2021 at 0:57

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