When you install (in a debian based distribution) the basic
texlive it install the compiler -which includes latex, pdflatex, dvips, dvipdf, and many others-, and the basic packages (including classes, styles, etc.).
sudo aptitude install texlive
That is the minimal amount of things should be installed in order to work!
On the other hand if you have HD to spear, you could install the complete set of packages using
sudo aptitude install texlive-full
There are a huge diversity of editors for writing in LaTeX. Some of them are
- Latexzila, etc
There is also a WYSIWYG editor called
To install use the command (replace
texmaker by the one you want to try)
sudo aptitude install texmaker
I usually use the default
evince as viewer, but you could try
okular, but it will install a huge amount of packages (unless you use KDE environment)
sudo aptitude install okular