I am using llncs format to write a paper. But I am not getting the references as mentioned in the sample pdf file. All my references as stored in one bib file. Can some one tell me what are exact commands I should use to get llncs reference style. Thank you.

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    In addition to having \documentclass{llncs} be the opening instruction of the document, do you have the directive \bibliographystyle{splncs03} somewhere in the document, and did you run LaTeX, BibTeX, and LaTeX twice more? If you've done all these things and no bibliography is generated, have you checked the xxx.log and xxx.blg files (where xxx is the name of your main tex file) for error messages? – Mico Jun 25 '14 at 19:36
  • Does llncs format gives references in numeric format or some thing like[ABC10]. Can some tell me exact order of references. – VKR Jun 25 '14 at 19:40
  • Unless you use a specialized citation management package such as natbib, it is the bibliography style (for your document, probably splncs03) and not the document class (llncs) that determines the format of the citation callouts and the sorting order (or lack thereof) of the entries in the bibliography. With splncs03, the citation callouts will be numeric and the bibliographic references will be sorted alphabetically by authors' names. – Mico Jun 25 '14 at 19:51
  • @Mico Thank you for help. Now every thing is working fine – VKR Jun 25 '14 at 19:59
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    @Mico Either an answer or vote for closing. – egreg Mar 14 '15 at 23:57

You need to specify the bibliography style that is to be applied -- the document class llncs doesn't do that for you.

Springer distributes the style file splncs03.bst along with the document class file llncs.cls. Your preamble should therefore contain the following instructions


Whenever the argument of \bibliographystyle is modified, be sure to run LaTeX, BibTeX, and LaTeX twice more to fully propagate all changes.

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FIXED! Add these lines to end of your tex file...


Run commands: BIBTEX, and PDFLatex (if applicable) and the references should appear.

I hope it helps?

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