Here often we see statements You don't need to load PGF because TikZ loads it, or don't load TikZ because PGFplots already does that.... I wonder if:

Is there a tree diagram listing all these relationships/subordinations/rank between packages?

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    Given the number of packages out there, you're asking for a very messy graph :) – jubobs Jun 29 '14 at 0:02
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    As far as I understand, it doesn't matter that you call a package that has already been called by someone else before. It just gets ignored when it is requested. I think you can see what packages you are using with \listfiles – Mario S. E. Jun 29 '14 at 2:48
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    @SergioParreiras Nah, don't worry about re-loading. fica tranquilo, pá :) – Mario S. E. Jun 29 '14 at 3:56
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    @MarioS.E. You can get errors if you have different optional arguments in the two cases: tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=optclash – Torbjørn T. Jun 29 '14 at 8:29
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    Have a look at this answer by @Heiko: How to design a command inquiring internally required packages? – Johannes_B Oct 20 '14 at 15:33

You can use \listfiles to see what packages are actually loaded and can look through the log to see what loads what: TeX surrounds each file with a parenthesis pair [( ... )] so one can parse the log and work out dependencies. However, I would strongly suggest not doing this. In any document, you should know which packages provide which commands you use, and explicitly load those packages. It's a very bad idea to rely on package X always loading package Y (beyond a few places where the dependency is in a bundle of related packages, and there almost always the 'low level' one should not be used directly by users).

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