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Can anyone help me with the plotting using tikz? I would like to plot the figure below in tikz but I do not know where to start. I have checked the examples given using "ball", yet I cannot find anything which deals with a hemisphere.

\documentclass[tikz]{standalone}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\draw [dashed] (0,0) arc (180:0:4 and 2) ;
\draw (0,0) arc (180:360:4 and 2) ;
\draw [dashed] (0,0.5) arc (180:0:3.95 and 2) ;
\draw (0,0.5) arc (180:360:3.95 and 2) ;
\draw (0,0) arc (180:0:4 and 4);
\draw (5.5, 1.5) circle (1);
\end{tikzpicture} 
\end{document}

Sky dome

  • 1
    Welcome to TeX.SX! Please help us to help you and add a minimal working example (MWE) that illustrates your problem. It will be much easier for us to reproduce your situation and find out what the issue is when we see compilable code, starting with \documentclass{...} and ending with \end{document}. – user31729 Jul 13 '14 at 13:45
  • What exactly are you stuck on? – cfr Jul 13 '14 at 23:47
  • @cfr, I do not know how to do this efficiently. Two particular things puzzle me, 1) how to make the angles representation (i.e., the two way arrows) exactly correspond to the two lines defining the angle; 2) when the lines passing through the small circle, how to make them "dashed". I appreciate your help. – Dazhi Yang Jul 14 '14 at 10:07
  • For the angles, have you looked at the angles library included in tikz? – cfr Jul 15 '14 at 2:53
  • 1
    @PaulGessler, thank you for the links. I have checked those example before I posted the question. I like the first two examples, however, they use the object ball. Is there anything similar for a hemisphere? – Dazhi Yang Jul 16 '14 at 10:36
3

Here are my two cents. It's a simple freehand drawn and no mathematical correct drawing. It is more a POC with pseudo 3d-code and many code that could be written much more sophisticated. Just take this as some additional ideas to complete your work.

\documentclass[tikz, border=6mm]{standalone}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
 % base circle
 \draw (-4,0) arc (180:360:4 and 1);
 \draw [dashed] (-4,0) arc (180:0:4 and 1);
 % circle above base circle
 \draw (-3.95,.5) arc (180:360:3.95 and 1);
 \draw [dashed] (-3.95,.5) arc (180:0:3.95 and 1);
 % hemisphere
 \draw (-4,0) arc (180:0:4 and 4);
 % circle on hemisphere and point in it
 \draw (2,2) circle (1);
 \draw (2,2) node [circle, fill=black, inner sep=.05cm, label={[label distance=-.25cm]95:$F_1xL$}] (dot) {};
 % rectangles at zero
 \draw (0,0,0) -- ++(0,-.5,-.5) -- ++(0,.5,0) -- ++(0,.5,.5) -- cycle;
 \draw (0,0) -- ++(-.5,0) -- ++(0,.5) -- ++(.5,0) -- cycle;
 % x and spanning xi
 \draw [thick, dashed] (0,0) -- ++(-5,0);
 \draw [thick] (0,0) -- ++(172.5:5cm);
 % y
 \draw [thick, dashed] (0,0) -- ++(0,5);
 % z
 \draw [thick, dashed] (0,0,0) -- ++(0,-2.5,-2.5);
 % lines spanning angle alpha
 \draw [thick] (0,0) -- ++(45:5cm);
 \draw [thick] (0,0) -- ++(30:5cm);
 % angle labels
 \draw [red, thick, <->] (0,0) ++(172.5:4.5cm) arc (172.5:180:4.5cm) node [midway, left] () {$\xi$};
 \draw [red, thick, <->] (0,0) ++(30:4.5cm) arc (30:45:4.5cm) node [midway, above right] () {$\alpha$};  
 \draw [red, thick, <->] (0,0) ++(90:1.5cm) arc (90:45:1.5cm) node [midway, above] () {$\theta h$};
 % other labels
 \draw (0,-.75) node () {$F_2xL$};
 \draw (-1,2) node () {L};
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

Hemisphere

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