This is the my document:

% !BIB TS-program = biber


% Citation styles


%Modifying the table settings

%Modifying the table caption


%For a single author
\author{Author Name}

%For a single institute
\institute{Institution\\ \email{[email protected]}}


The main goal of this project is to offer a perspective on the economic growth of nations and how this can be linked to religion and education. Crossing data for recent years, this study will open the door to discussion on topics such as capitalism, governmental policies on education, and spirituality. Hopefully, we will offer foundations to answer the following questions: have educated people abandoned their beliefs? Are religious countries wealthier than secular ones? Are rich countries promoting atheism or is it the opposite way?


%\subsection{First Subsection}
Religion, which can be understood as ``\textit{a set of rituals, rationalized by myths, which mobilizes supernatural powers for the purpose of achieving or preventing transformations of state in man and nature} \parencite{wallace}'', has changed the lives of generations, moulding economic and political aspects of history in the process. Take for instance the Knights Templar that, fuelled by the desire to propagate Christian faith (and incited by politicians, of course), embarked on a bloodthirsty journey against heretics \parencite{knights}. Or perhaps, to mention an opposite example, we should think of the Renaissance era, a period of time where religion occupied a secondary place against human intellect, something that allowed arts and science to flourish, reaching heights never seen before. All in all, the impact of religion on humanity is undeniable. 

This study will help people evaluate if that influence continues on present times. Nations that in the days of yore were eminent religion bastions (e.g. Italy) are now secular states \parencite{secular}. It would be interesting to know if economical growth, often times associated with neoliberalism, has contributed to that fact. There is another component on this equation: education. For example, in the Medieval Period religion dominated all the aspects of society \parencite{middle}, making it complicated to tag religion as trickery because there was no substantial knowledge to debate against the established notion of the existence of a god. 

A great amount of information could be found on Internet. Most of these studies have been published by prestigious organisations such as the World Bank or the United Nations. Nonetheless, in spite of the quality of those documents, not all the required parameters for this project could be found in one single site. Therefore, it was necessary to plan ahead to collect the pertinent data so as to come up with a customised data base for the project.

Some of the aforementioned pages allowed users to apply some filters to narrow the data before exporting the information. That feature came in handy because in no few cases there were too many parameters that were of no use for this project. When this feature was not available, the data was sorted directly on Microsoft Excel. Fortunately enough, the downloaded files came in formats that this program could handle.

In order to have the right content on the visualisation, it was required to filter the corpus of information and establish some rules to connect one parameter to the other. I will briefly explain the methods employed to do that:
The word anchor refers to a pivot, a central point. Analogous to a black body that is surrounded by planets, this primary information will play the central role in the study. In our case, we started obtaining a world statistic about countries and religion.
The other parameters \textit{orbited} around our anchor. For instance, since we had a list of countries, our second data base file contained a relation between countries and GDP Per Capita. One can see this method as an assemblage, where pieces began to connect with each other. 
\subsubsection{Single versus multiple files}
All the parameters were collected on a single document. This approach had its positive and negative sides. On the one hand, it proved easy to maintain and alter figures on a single file. On the other hand, having all the information in one place increased the overall size of the file. Weighing the pros and cons, the single-file method was chosen. 

\subsection{Content of the data base}

The final data base comprises of six columns: ``Country,'' ``Religion,'' ``GDP Per Capita,'' ``Importance of Religion (\%),'' ``Years of Compulsory Education,'' and  ``Average of  Years of Schooling of Adults (25+).'' An excerpt of the final result can be seen in Table~\ref{tab:excel}. In the following sections the sources from which the data was gathered will be detailed.

\subsubsection{First and second parameters: Country and Religion}
We required to know which was the major religion in each country. This information was obtained from the ARDA website\footnote{ARDA: http://www.thearda.com}, which allows user to access statistics on religion. In the document ``Cross-National Socio-Economic and Religion Data, 2011'' \parencite{arda-religions} the amount of data was rather dense. Information for each nation included not only the major religion, but also many other variants. Therefore, a filter was applied to gather only what was relevant; in this case, the column ``I-RELIGION (Largest religion by proportion).'' Each country was assigned a number code from 1 to 5, which corresponded to the following values: ``Catholic,'' ``Orthodox Christian,'' ``Other Christian,'' ``Muslim,'' ``Buddhist,'' and ``Other.'' It was not a problem to find and replace those numeric values with the name of the religion. Both ``Country'' and ``Religion'' parameters became the \textit{anchor} of this project. 

\subsubsection{Third parameter: GDP Per Capita}
Here it was necessary to a list of countries and their respective GDP Per Capita. As stated in The World Bank website\footnote{The World Bank: http://www.worldbank.org/}, this measurement is ``\textit{the gross domestic product (GDP) converted to international dollars using purchase power parity rates.}'' This is a commonly used indicator, for it shows the relative performances of the nations. The study ``Countries Compared by Economics GDP Per Capita \parencite{nationmaster-gdpppp}'' was obtained from the Nation Master\footnote{Nation Master: http://www.nationmaster.com/} website. 

\caption{Lowest and highest entries ordered according to their GDP}\label{tab:excel}
    \begin{tabular}{ | p{1.5cm} | C{1,6cm} | C{0.9cm} | C{1.2cm} | C{1.5cm} | C{1.2cm} | }
    Country & Religion & GDP Per Capita & Importance of Religion (\%)& Years of Compulsory Education & Average of  Years of Schooling of Adults (25+) \\ \hline
    Burundi & Catholic & 251 & 98 & 6 & 3 \\ 

\subsubsection{Fourth parameter: Importance of Religion (\%)}
One crucial aspect we wanted to take into consideration was the importance people gave to religion on their lives. The hypothesis was that poorest nations were more religious than their richer ones. This could be corroborated thanks to he study ``Gallup Global Reports \parencite{gallup-importance}'' done by the American consulting company Gallup\footnote{Gallup: http://www.gallup.com}. Since the results we found were sorted by countries, it was an straightforward process to link the information to our main table which, at this point, already contained the following columns: ``Country,'' ``Religion,'' and ``GDP Per Capita.'' For those countries whose figures were absent, a median response percentage was assigned; a simple conditional formula evaluated the GDP Per Capita  and assigned a value according to another study produced by Gallup: ``Religiosity Highest in World's Poorest Nations \parencite{gallup-religiosity}.'' 

\subsubsection{Fifth parameter: Years of Compulsory Education}
On this matter the Nation Master website also offered a whole lot of valuable information. In the study ``Duration of compulsory education \parencite{nationmaster-compulsory},'' a list of nations along the number of years a child must be enrolled in elementary school was depicted. To complement missing gaps, another data base (``Duration of Compulsory Education around the World  \parencite{chartsbin-compulsory}'') was used from the ChartsBin\footnote{Chartsbin: http://chartsbin.com} website.

\subsubsection{Sixth parameter: Average of Years of Schooling of Adults (25+)}
Whereas the last study focused on elementary education, ``Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years)  \parencite{undp-adult_schooling}'' was oriented toward adults that continue their education (college and postgraduate studies.) This documentation was extracted from the United nations Development Program (UNDP) page\footnote{UNDP: https://data.undp.org}.

After some research, the Highcharts\footnote{Highcharts: http://www.highcharts.com} website offered a chart library written in JavaScript. It does not need any client side plug-ins like Flash or Java. The customisation of the information was performed using JSFiddle\footnote{JS Fiddle: http://jsfiddle.net}, an online tool to test and share JavaScript, CSS, HTML or CoffeeScript. Once the data was completed, the page was saved and stored locally for the final adjustments.

The final outcome  can be seen in Figure \ref{Fig:finalchart}. On the vertical axis, the chart shows the list of countries. These entries are sorted according to their GDP value. Therefore, nations do not appear in alphabetical order.

    \includegraphics[width=1.0 \textwidth, cfbox=light-gray]{./images/final_chart}
    \caption{Final visualisation}

On the matter of interaction, the legend also functions as a basic filter. By clicking on the labels, user can hid or show one or all the parameters. This option was useful to perform a more specific comparison of data. An additional feature of this chart is that it incorporated a function to print or download the chart in different formats.

\subsubsection{Written survey} All participants completed the survey without problems. Concerning the grading, using a values that went from 1 (poor) to 5 (very good) was not a good choice, for students were accustomed to the German grading system that work in the inverse order: 1 (very good) to 5 (poor). This will be taken into consideration for future studies. The complete results of the surveys could be found in Table~\ref{tab:results}.

\caption{Project visualisation sheet results}\label{tab:results}
    \begin{tabular}{ | p{2cm} | C{0.8cm} | C{0.8cm} | C{0.5cm} | C{0.5cm} | C{0.5cm} | C{0.5cm} | }
    Name & Gender & Age & Q1 & Q2 & Q3 & Q4 \\ \hline
    Ana & F & 28 & 4 & 3 & 5 & 4 \\ 
    Canny & F & 29 & 3 & 1 & 1 & 1 \\ 

On a second version of this project information will be divided into pieces to facilitate comprehension. 

A suggestion done by a participant of the study was to use the ``Human Development Index indicator\footnote{UNDP: http://data.un.org/DocumentData.aspx?id=324},'' which ranges from 0.304 to 0.955. Prior to the delivery of this paper, a new version was uploaded to the server which shows some improvements\footnote{Visualisation (v.002): http://tinyurl.com/mhol697}.

I would like to thank you.



Here's the .bib file

    Howpublished = {Countries Compared by Economy GDP Per capita. International Statistics at NationMaster.com},
    Keywords = {gdp},
    Note = {[Online; accessed June 05, 2014] \url{http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Economy/GDP/Per-capita/PPP}},
    Title = {Countries Compared by Economy GDP Per capita. International Statistics at NationMaster.com},
    Url = {http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Economy/GDP/Per-capita/PPP},
    Year = {n.d.},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Economy/GDP/Per-capita/PPP}}

    Howpublished = {Countries Compared by Education Duration of compulsory education. International Statistics at NationMaster.com},
    Keywords = {compulsory,education},
    Note = {[Online; accessed June 04, 2014] \url{http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Education/Duration-of-compulsory-education}},
    Title = {Countries Compared by Education Duration of compulsory education. International Statistics at NationMaster.com},
    Url = {http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Education/Duration-of-compulsory-education},
    Year = {n.d.},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Education/Duration-of-compulsory-education}}

    Howpublished = {Countries Compared by Religion > Major religion(s). International Statistics at NationMaster.com},
    Keywords = {countries,religion},
    Note = {[Online; accessed June 08, 2014] \url{http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Religion/Major-religion(s)}},
    Title = {Countries Compared by Religion > Major religion(s). International Statistics at NationMaster.com},
    Url = {http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Religion/Major-religion(s)},
    Year = {n.d.},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Religion/Major-religion(s)}}

    Howpublished = {Duration of Compulsory Education around the World},
    Keywords = {compulsory,education},
    Note = {[Online; accessed June 04, 2014] \url{http://chartsbin.com/view/xo6}},
    Title = {Duration of Compulsory Education around the World},
    Url = {http://chartsbin.com/view/xo6},
    Year = {n.d.},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://chartsbin.com/view/xo6}}

    Howpublished = {Gallup Global Reports},
    Keywords = {countries,importance,religion},
    Note = {[Online; accessed June 09, 2014] \url{http://www.gallup.com/poll/128210/gallup-global-reports.aspx}},
    Title = {Gallup Global Reports},
    Url = {http://www.gallup.com/poll/128210/gallup-global-reports.aspx},
    Year = {n.d.},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://www.gallup.com/poll/128210/gallup-global-reports.aspx}}

    Date-Modified = {2014-07-14 13:57:34 +0000},
    Howpublished = {UNDP},
    Keywords = {education, adults},
    Lastchecked = {June 10 2014},
    Title = {Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years) | Data | United Nations Development Programme},
    Url = {https://data.undp.org/dataset/Mean-years-of-schooling-of-adults-years-/m67k-vi5c},
    Year = {n.d.},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {https://data.undp.org/dataset/Mean-years-of-schooling-of-adults-years-/m67k-vi5c}}

    Howpublished = {Cross-National Socio-Economic and Religion Data, 2011},
    Keywords = {countries,religions},
    Note = {[Online; accessed June 13, 2014] \url{http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Downloads/ECON11_DL2.asp}},
    Title = {Cross-National Socio-Economic and Religion Data, 2011},
    Url = {http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Downloads/ECON11_DL2.asp},
    Year = {n.d.},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Downloads/ECON11_DL2.asp}}

    Howpublished = {Religiosity Highest in World's Poorest Nations},
    Keywords = {religiosity,poorest,countries},
    Note = {[Online; accessed June 11, 2014] \url{http://www.gallup.com/poll/142727/Religiosity-Highest-World-Poorest-Nations.aspx}},
    Title = {Religiosity Highest in World's Poorest Nations},
    Url = {http://www.gallup.com/poll/142727/Religiosity-Highest-World-Poorest-Nations.aspx},
    Year = {n.d.},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://www.gallup.com/poll/142727/Religiosity-Highest-World-Poorest-Nations.aspx}}

    Author = {Simon Newman},
    Date-Modified = {2014-07-14 14:00:12 +0000},
    Howpublished = {The Finer Times: War, Crime and History Resource},
    Keywords = {religion,middle age},
    Lastchecked = {July 4, 2014},
    Title = {Religion in the Middle Ages},
    Url = {http://www.thefinertimes.com/Middle-Ages/religion-in-the-middle-ages.html},
    Year = {n.d.},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://www.thefinertimes.com/Middle-Ages/religion-in-the-middle-ages.html}}

    Author = {Norman Housley & Malcom Barber},
    Keywords = {knights,templar},
    Publisher = {Aldershot, England: Ashgate},
    Title = {Knighthoods of Christ: essays on the history of the Crusades and the Knights Templar, presented to Malcolm Barber},
    Year = {2007}}

    Author = {Anthony Wallace},
    Keywords = {history,religion},
    Publisher = {New York: Random House},
    Title = {Religion: an anthropological view},
    Year = {1966}}

    Howpublished = {Human Development Index and its components},
    Keywords = {development,countries},
    Note = {[Online; accessed July 11, 2014] \url{http://data.un.org/DocumentData.aspx?id=324}},
    Title = {Human Development Index and its components},
    Url = {http://data.un.org/DocumentData.aspx?id=324},
    Year = {n.d.},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://data.un.org/DocumentData.aspx?id=324}}

    Date-Modified = {2014-07-14 13:57:23 +0000},
    Howpublished = {Answers.com},
    Keywords = {secular},
    Lastchecked = {July 11 2014},
    Title = {10 Countries That Have Secular Governments},
    Url = {http://religion.answers.com/secularism/10-countries-that-have-secular-governments},
    Year = {n.d.},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://religion.answers.com/secularism/10-countries-that-have-secular-governments}}

This is the link to the llncs class: http://www.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il/~tcc/tcc04/llncs.cls

I presume the problem is that I'm running Biber to compile, but at the same time BibTeX is required to compile the tables and figures references.

Any idea how to solve this issue?

Here are the error messages I got:

LaTeX Warning: Reference `tab:excel' on page 3 undefined on input line 74.

Overfull \hbox (5.69725pt too wide) in paragraph at lines 87--87 []|\OT1/cmr/m/n/7 Importance

Overfull \hbox (0.93912pt too wide) in paragraph at lines 97--97 []|\OT1/cmr/m/n/7 Luxembourg|

Overfull \hbox (3.25302pt too wide) in paragraph at lines 98--98 []|\OT1/cmr/m/n/7 Liechtenstein| [3] Underfull \vbox (badness 2150) has occurred while \output is active [4] Overfull \hbox (5.75783pt too wide) in paragraph at lines 111--112 []\OT1/cmr/bx/n/10 Sixth para-meter: Av-er-age of Years of School-ing of Adult s (25+)[] \OT1/cmr/m/n/10 (-20) Whereas [5]

LaTeX Warning: Reference `Fig:finalchart' on page 6 undefined on input line 134 .

<./images/final_chart.jpg, id=92, 943.525pt x 551.05875pt> Overfull \hbox (6.79999pt too wide) in paragraph at lines 137--138 [][] [6] Underfull \vbox (badness 1931) has occurred while \output is active [7 <./image s/final_chart.jpg>]

LaTeX Warning: Reference `tab:results' on page 8 undefined on input line 159.

Overfull \hbox (2.49478pt too wide) in paragraph at lines 166--166 []|\OT1/cmr/m/n/7 Gender| [8] ! Misplaced alignment tab character &. ...elim H\bibinitperiod \bibinitdelim & \bibinitperiod \bibinitdel... l.192 ?

  • 1
    BibTeX is not the problem here, since you shouldn't compile with BibTeX if you're using biblatex (and biber). Did you compile at least twice with (pdf)LaTeX?
    – Werner
    Jul 14, 2014 at 21:37
  • 1
    Please, do not divide your code into multiple parts that way for providing a MWE (which is not the case anyway, because there is a lot of unnecessary code in it)
    – user31729
    Jul 14, 2014 at 21:37
  • 1
    After merging the codes of your 'MWE' and using the demo mode of graphicx package (which is included by you twice ;-)) the code runs without problems and the reference shows up correctly. (Two runs of pdflatex are mandatory for that, however)
    – user31729
    Jul 14, 2014 at 21:46
  • I'm totally lost, what are you talking about? What is a MWE? Could you be more specific? Sorry but I don't get what you mean. Jul 14, 2014 at 23:40
  • 2
    @killthepixelnow Here's some more information on making minimal examples: I've just been asked to write a minimal example, what is that? and How do I make a "a complete small document"?. Basically you should strip out everything in your document except the stuff you need to demonstrate the problem you are having. This generally means most \usepackage commands, and certainly most of your text. Sometimes making such a document will help you uncover the problem by yourself.
    – Alan Munn
    Jul 15, 2014 at 0:47

1 Answer 1


Here is the Minimal (non-)Working Example created from your code:


    Author = {Norman Housley & Malcom Barber},
    Keywords = {knights,templar},
    Publisher = {Aldershot, England: Ashgate},
    Title = {Knighthoods of Christ: essays on the history of the Crusades and the Knights Templar, presented to Malcolm Barber},
    Year = {2007}}






pdflatex is fairly explicit about the problem here:

! Misplaced alignment tab character &.
<argument> ...ibnamedelimb Housley\bibnamedelimb &
                                                  \bibnamedelima Malcom


But we can get a bit more help by typing h at the prompt:

? h
I can't figure out why you would want to use a tab mark
here. If you just want an ampersand, the remedy is
simple: Just type `I\&' now. But if some right brace
up above has ended a previous alignment prematurely,
you're probably due for more error messages, and you
might try typing `S' now just to see what is salvageable.

OK. So why does TeX think we are using a tab mark when we've eliminated all the tabulars? Note that the context looks as though it involves the bibliography so it is worth searching the bib file for stray & characters.

Sure enough:

    Author = {Norman Housley & Malcom Barber},

is the root of the problem. The syntax should be:

    Author = {Norman Housley and Malcom Barber},

or, better in general (though it doesn't matter here):

    Author = {Housley, Norman and Barber, Malcom},

which is a pattern which will work with a wider range of names.

Correct that and everything works just fine.


This has nothing whatsoever to do with tables and figures. The only problem is the mistake in the bib file. If I correct that I can compile the entire thing. (I've substituted article, commented out the \institute and switched to demo for graphics as I don't have your files. But all the tables and figures are here.)


  • It doesn't work on my project. I get the idea of a MWE but the script should work in conjunction with the other codes. Testing that part alone is good, but it doesn't help the problem because other factors are involved. PS: Updated the error messages. Jul 15, 2014 at 1:29
  • It works because you haven't put tables and figures in the code. That is the major issue on my example and the reason why I posted all the code, not only a portion. Jul 15, 2014 at 1:31
  • That was it, I was trying to delete the auxiliary files but never tried to erase the .bbl archive. Great, it works! It's almost 04:00 in the morning, I need to get some rest. Once again, big thanks! Jul 15, 2014 at 1:48
  • 1
    @killthepixelnow Glad you got it to work. These things can be infuriating. The problem is that the & is in the bbl so every time it tries to compile, you get the error. Only if you can do a new biber run - which requires a successful pdflatex run - can you sort the issue. But to do that, you need to kill the bbl... Should we tidy up these comments?
    – cfr
    Jul 15, 2014 at 1:53

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