Is there a comprehensive list of the LaTeX ligatures in basic font(s)? Besides the long dashes formed by -- and ---, and some two and three letter combinations that start with f (like fi), I can't think of any. I am not doing anything really fancy, just using RevTeX4 class to format my research papers. I searched on the web but didn't find a comprehensive list, though perhaps I missed something. Any help?

  • I saw that and wasn't sure if that is a comprehensive list...
    – M.B.M.
    Jul 24, 2014 at 1:12
  • 2
  • Thanks @Robert. Seems that I didn't do a good job searching. I was going to delete my question as duplicate, but noticed cfr's answer at the bottom which simpler and is exactly what I need. I accepted the answer and will leave up the moderators to decide on whether to mark this question as duplicate.
    – M.B.M.
    Jul 24, 2014 at 6:27
  • @M.B.M. Do note that my suggestion depends on fonts sticking to the 'standard' set up and not modifying the encoding so far as ligatures are concerned. As I said, beyond that, you need a more complex solutions. (My suggestion is essentially the strategy provided by egreg to the earlier question.) However, this will nonetheless work in practice for many cases because it is relatively unusual for fonts to change the T1 encoding in ways which alter the ligatures. Just realise that it does happen. (Some of my font packages do this though the documentation always explains exactly what I changed.)
    – cfr
    Jul 24, 2014 at 14:06

1 Answer 1


It depends on the fonts you are using, where this means the font+encoding for TeX/pdfTeX or the font+activated features for XeTeX/LuaTeX (with maybe additional TeX ligatures added for convenience if enabled).

For TeX/pdfTeX, it depends primarily on the encoding. However, it may still depend on the particular font as well. To get an idea for most T1 encoded fonts, you can examine the ligatures defined in the encoding file supplied as part of fontinst. For example:

grep -i '\\ligature' tex/fontinst/latinetx/t1.etx 

gives me:


However, even fonts which use the T1 encoding may have slight variations so to be absolutely certain, you would need to examine how each font you are using is configured. (Sometimes you have an etx file but usually not. The documentation may tell you. Otherwise, you need to examine the .tfm and/or .vf files.)

If you use XeTeX/LuaTeX, it will depend on the particular font and the feature set which you have activated in your document.

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