Consider the following MWE:


    author  = "Billio, M. and Getmansky, M. and Lo, A. and Pelizzon, L.",
    title   = "Econometric measures of connectedness and systemic risk in the finance and insurance sectors",
    year    = "2012",
    journal = "Journal of Financial Economics",
    volume  = "104",
    number  = "3",
    pages   = "535--559"}


The output in the reference list is as follows:

enter image description here

However, I want the output to be:

Billio, M., Getmansky, M., Lo, A., Pelizzon, L., 2012. Econometric measures of connectedness and systemic risk in the finance and insurance sectors. Journal of Financial Economics 104(3), 535-559

Note the following changes:

1) A comma after the last author (eg, L., instead of L.)

2) No brackets around the year (eg, 2012 instead of (2012))

3) No italics for the journal name (eg, Journal of Financial Economics instead of Journal of Financial Economics)

4) No italics for volume number (eg, 104 instead of 104)

5) No comma after the journal name and before the volume number (eg, Journal of Financial Economics 104(3) instead of Journal of Financial Economics, 104(3))

6) No & symbol before the final author/editor in a multi-author/editor list

I'd also like to have the same set of rules apply for @misc as well.

However, I want the in-text citation to remain the same, I only want the above to apply to the reference list output.

How can I achieve this?

  • It's easy to do with biblatex as it uses a latex-like syntax. Note there exists a bilatex-apa style.
    – Bernard
    Aug 5, 2014 at 18:10
  • 1
    @Bernard, Could you run me through the steps? I am a complete novice when it comes to bibliographies in latex as I've only just started to use it and barely know the syntax/processes.
    – TrueTears
    Aug 5, 2014 at 18:12
  • I'll look at your code. Perhaps what you ask has already been done.
    – Bernard
    Aug 5, 2014 at 18:13
  • I've taken the liberty of adding an additional item to the list of changes you would like to get.
    – Mico
    Aug 5, 2014 at 19:02
  • I think that you have sufficiently many change requests -- keeping in mind that the formatting changes will need to be applied to more than a dozen different entry types -- that you may be best off creating an entirely new bibliography style using the menu-based, questions-and-multiple-choice-question-and-answers makebst utility that's part of the custom-bib package. Give it a try -- I think you'll be surprised how smooth the process is.
    – Mico
    Aug 5, 2014 at 20:39

1 Answer 1


Here it is. Note that biblatex allows to emulate natbib commands. In particular, in this mode you can always write \citep but actually it is translated into biblatex's command \parencite. More importantly, the syntax is slighly different: `\bibliography{name_of_the_bibfile} in the body of the document is replaced with:

  1. \addbibresource{name_of_the_bibfile.bib} in the preamble

  2. \printbibliography in the body of the document


    author  = {Billio, M. and Getmansky, M. and Lo, A. and Pelizzon, L.},
    title   = {Econometric measures of connectedness and systemic risk in the finance and insurance sectors},
    year    = {2012},
    journal = {Journal of Financial Economics},
    volume  = {104},
    number  = {3},
    pages   = {535--559}}
\usepackage[backend=biber, style=apa, natbib]{biblatex}





{\renewcommand{\finalnamedelim}{\ \finalandcomma\addspace}%

As we see in \parencite{billioandrew},…



enter image description here

  • Requested changes 1 and 6 are missing. :-) Aug 5, 2014 at 20:17
  • @Bernard Thanks for that! In addition to changes 1 and 6, I copy and pasted your code exactly as above into a new document, however I do not get a references list and my output in text appears as: As we see in (billioandrew ),. . .
    – TrueTears
    Aug 5, 2014 at 20:30
  • @Mico: it's not really hard, but rather long — the time to check odds and ends… For the comma it's done, I'll check the rest.
    – Bernard
    Aug 5, 2014 at 20:52
  • 1
    @TrueTears: Did you run LaTeX, Biber, LaTeX, LaTeX? For the citation, do you mean you have only one author? and in boldface?
    – Bernard
    Aug 5, 2014 at 20:54
  • @Bernard I use TexnicCenter and normally for bibliographies I just press ALT+F7 three times (LaTeX => PDF), how do I run Biber? I think that's the step I'm missing. Regarding the output, it is exactly as shown with the label bolded, I think it's because I'm not outputting it properly haha...
    – TrueTears
    Aug 5, 2014 at 21:04

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