I'm using natbib, german babel and natbib creates output of the form

Foo and Bar (1337)

I would like to get

Foo & Bar (1337) for citet and
(Foo & Bar 1337) respectively for citep.
  • 1
    What \bibliographystyle do you use?
    – lockstep
    Commented Jun 3, 2011 at 21:44
  • Hey, im using chicago atm. Anyhow, since I additionally need to have small caps (stupid prof!), I'm looking for that, additionally, anyways... looks like siam and acm dont work with natbib, you got any advice? Thanks
    – Saman
    Commented Jun 3, 2011 at 22:27
  • 1
    Can someone please correct the spelling for the word "separation" on the title?
    – Vivi
    Commented Jun 3, 2011 at 22:29
  • 1
    @Vivi: Spelling corrected.
    – lockstep
    Commented Jun 3, 2011 at 22:36

2 Answers 2


Assuming you're using \bibliographstyle{plainnat}, put a copy of plainnat.bst in your working folder and rename it to myplainnat.bst (later, this file should go to the appropriate location in your local TEXMF folder). In this copy, look for FUNCTION {format.lab.names} and specifically for " and ". Replace the latter with " \& " and save your modified copy. Compile your .tex file with \bibliographstyle{myplainnat}. The expression "and" in citations (but not in the bibliography) should now be replaced with "&".

If you want "&" also as separator in the bibliography, replace every instance of " and " in plainnat (there should be three of them) with " \& ".

EDIT: At least with regard to citations, it works the same way with chicago.bst. I don't know how to get small caps with natbib, though. My advice would be to switch to biblatex -- see this question for details.

  • look also for bbl.and as indicator, which might be used in multi languages styles Commented May 21, 2013 at 18:57

One option I have used previously is \renewcommand{\betweenauthors}{&} -- however it appears not to work with standard .bst files such as apalike.bst.

An alternative is to use the custom-bib package to generate your own .bst file - it does have an explicit option (AMPERSAND) that lets you choose between an and and an & in your list of authors.

Using custom-bib is as easy as running latex makebst.tex (e.g. latex /usr/local/texlive/2010/texmf-dist/tex/latex/custom-bib/makebst.tex for my installation) and following the prompts.

  • Doesn't seem to work with plainnat.bst or chicago.bst.
    – lockstep
    Commented Jun 4, 2011 at 9:37
  • @lockstep Oupps, doesn't work with apalike.bst either; seems I used it in conjunction with a .bst file generated using custom-bib; have edited my answer accordingly Commented Jun 6, 2011 at 3:13
  • 1
    I second the use of custom-bib. Commented Jun 6, 2011 at 8:57

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