# Greek and English Language in bibliography using utf8 encoding and LaTeX

I am creating a document;it's main language beeing greek. What I am trying to do, unsuccessfully is to have bibliography entries in two languages, Greek and English that is.

My code is

\RequirePackage{filecontents}
\begin{filecontents*}{testbib.bib}
@comment Datei testbib.bib

@article{Mayer,
title = "The 11B(p,a)8Be nuclear reaction and 11B(p,p)11B backscattering cross sections for analytical purposes ",
journal = "Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms ",
volume = "143",
number = "3",
pages = "244 - 252",
year = "1998",
note = "",
issn = "0168-583X",
doi = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(98)00383-8",
url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X98003838",
author = "M. Mayer and A. Annen and W. Jacob and S. Grigull",
language  ="English",
hyphenation="english"
}

@Mastersthesis{Vpaneta,
author = "Συγγραφέας",
title  = "Τίτλος",
year   = "2012",
month  = "μήνας",
school = "Κατι",
language  ="Greek",
hyphenation="greek"
}
\end{filecontents*}

\documentclass[11pt,a4paper]{book}

\usepackage[english,greek]{babel}
\usepackage[iso-8859-7]{inputenc}
%\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{kerkis}
\usepackage{pifont}
\usepackage[unicode]{hyperref}
% \usepackage[bibencoding=auto,backend=biber,babel=other]{biblatex}

\newcommand{\sw}{\selectlanguage{english}}
\newcommand{\sq}{\selectlanguage{greek}}
\newcommand{\eng}[1]{\latintext#1\greektext}
\newcommand{\gre}[1]{\greektext#1\latintext}

\begin{document}
\tableofcontents
\chapter{Κεφάλαιο}
\section{Ενότητα}
σδφγηξκλ\cite{Mayer}hgfkhgjfkhgfkhg\cite{Vpaneta}
\section{Ενότητα}
\bibliographystyle{plain}
%\selectlanguage{english}
\bibliography{testbib}
%\printbibliography
\end{document}


Preferably I would like to use utf8 encoding in order to have greek contents in the pdf viewer. However when using utf8 encoding there's no way to produce the .pdf file. There are errors stating that

Package inputenc Error: Unicode char \u8:��2 not set up for use with LaTeX

therefore I have to use iso-8859-7 encoding. Note that I change my editor's encoding accordingly.

What can I do to prefferably use a utf8 encoding to create the bibliography and use 2 different languages or as a last solution to use iso-8859-7 encoding to create in the same way(i.e. using 2 languages) the bibliography?

My output using iso-8859-7 encoding is

When changing the language to English the output is

• For multilingual bibliographies, biblatex is the only way to go (I don't think babelbib supports Greek). – egreg Sep 14 '14 at 10:01
• @egreg : I am not sure if I am using babelbib... I think I am using bibtex or what is default when running quick build from Kile. – Thanos Sep 14 '14 at 10:04
• No, you're not using babelbib. Note that @comment Datei testbib.bib is syntactically incorrect and will produce errors. – egreg Sep 14 '14 at 10:21
• I will erase it! Any idea how to produce the bibliography using utf8? – Thanos Sep 14 '14 at 10:29
• See section 3.10.3 in the documentation of biblatex – egreg Sep 14 '14 at 10:30

you don't need to use XeLaTeX with biblatex, it works with pdflatex too. You sample compiles fine for me with pdflatex, utf8 option of fontenc, biblatex and biber for unicode bibliography support, and fontenc package with T1 and LGR options for font support (although it seems it works even without fontenc):

\RequirePackage{filecontents}
\begin{filecontents*}{testbib.bib}

@article{Mayer,
title = "The 11B(p,a)8Be nuclear reaction and 11B(p,p)11B backscattering cross sections for analytical purposes ",
journal = "Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms ",
volume = "143",
number = "3",
pages = "244 - 252",
year = "1998",
note = "",
issn = "0168-583X",
doi = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(98)00383-8",
url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X98003838",
author = "M. Mayer and A. Annen and W. Jacob and S. Grigull",
language  ="English",
hyphenation="english"
}

@Mastersthesis{Vpaneta,
author = "Συγγραφέας",
title  = "Τίτλος",
year   = "2012",
month  = "μήνας",
school = "Κατι",
language  ="Greek",
hyphenation="greek"
}
\end{filecontents*}

\documentclass[11pt,a4paper]{book}

\usepackage[english,greek]{babel}
\usepackage[T1,LGR]{fontenc}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
%\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{kerkis}
\usepackage{pifont}
\usepackage[unicode]{hyperref}
\usepackage[bibencoding=auto,backend=biber,babel=other]{biblatex}

\newcommand{\sw}{\selectlanguage{english}}
\newcommand{\sq}{\selectlanguage{greek}}
\newcommand{\eng}[1]{\latintext#1\greektext}
\newcommand{\gre}[1]{\greektext#1\latintext}

\begin{document}
\tableofcontents
\chapter{Κεφάλαιο}
\section{Ενότητα}
σδφγηξκλ\cite{Mayer}hgfkhgjfkhgfkhg\cite{Vpaneta}
\section{Ενότητα}
% \bibliographystyle{plain}
\selectlanguage{english}
%\bibliography{testbib}
\printbibliography
\end{document}


compile it with

 pdflatex filename.tex
biber filename
pdflatex filename.tex


and of course, file filename.tex must be in utf8 encoding

• Thank you very much for your answer. I run pdflatex file.tex, then biber file.tex but I got errors INFO - This is Biber 1.9 INFO - Logfile is 'testBibliography.tex.blg' ERROR - Cannot find control file 'testBibliography.tex.bcf'! - did you pass the "backend=biber" option to BibLaTeX? INFO - ERRORS: 1... – Thanos Sep 14 '14 at 11:36
• @Thanos just run biber filename, without .tex extension. I will modify my answer. – michal.h21 Sep 14 '14 at 11:39
• Now it's working!!! Thank you very much for your help and time!!! – Thanos Sep 14 '14 at 12:10
• @Thanos Just remove the language field from each bibliography entry if you don't want its contents printed. It is the hyphenation (preferred name langid) field that actually switches the language. – mvkorpel Sep 15 '14 at 12:06
• @giannis references are numerical, but normal English text is printed with Greek letters because Greek is selected as the document language – michal.h21 Apr 30 '15 at 10:55