Can't get unicode symbols in math mode

I am trying for about a week to launch unicode-math package with XeLaTeX and got nothing. PDF is created well but all Cyrillic symbols in math mode are skipped. I tried using different math fonts - no progress at all. In log file, I found low-level error:

Missing character: There is no [cyrillic letter from input] in font cmmi12!


But all fonts used in document are Unicode ones.

Here is a file I want to be processed well (of course it is UTF-8).

\documentclass[12pt]{book}
\usepackage{polyglossia}
\setdefaultlanguage[spelling=modern]{russian}
\setotherlanguage{english}
\defaultfontfeatures{Ligatures={TeX}}
\setmainfont{CMU Serif}
\setsansfont{CMU Sans Serif}
\setmonofont{CMU Typewriter Text}

\usepackage{amsmath, amssymb}
\usepackage[russian]{hyperref}

\usepackage{unicode-math}
\setmathfont{Latin Modern Math}

\frenchspacing

\begin{document}
Просто буквы % Plain letters
$$Память: M_{доп}(n) = \Theta(N)$$ % Memory: M_add(n) = \Theta(n)
\end{document}


• What makes you think there are glyphs in Latin Modern Math for Cyrillic chars? – Joseph Wright Sep 15 '14 at 11:34
• @JosephWright Actually i am trying fonts that are mentioned in unicode-math doc as Unicode-compatible ones. I also tried xits-math and don't succeed as well. – Lapshin Dmitry Sep 15 '14 at 11:43
• I think you slightly miss my point. Unicode fonts don't have every Unicode glyph in them, they have a subset but in predictable slots. In the case of a math mode font, this means defined 'mathematical meaning' glyphs. That I know of there are not such math mode slots for Cyrillic letters: one is expected to use Roman chars for maths. As such, it's entirely unsurprising that you don't get all of the text appearing in your output. – Joseph Wright Sep 15 '14 at 11:46
• Now that this question is resolved, could you adjust the title of this question to be more specific please? It won't archive well in its current form. – Will Robertson Sep 15 '14 at 12:53
• @WillRobertson changed. Actually, now I took in the problem and understand, why it should be called like this. – Lapshin Dmitry Sep 15 '14 at 16:22

This is not a problem of cyrillic math characters; if the text were English, the correct input would be

Letters only
$\text{Memory: } M_{\textup{add}}(n) = \Theta(N)$


because Память and доп are not math. The difference becomes clear when comparing this with the output of

$Memory: M_{add}(n) = \Theta(N)$


The bottom formula is clearly wrong. Textual subscripts are not math variables, so they should be typeset in the normal text font (upright), thus either \textnormal or \textup (the latter is shorter). Of course, you can define your own command for them.

Here's the complete example:

\documentclass[12pt]{book}

\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb}
\usepackage{unicode-math}
\usepackage{polyglossia}
\setdefaultlanguage[spelling=modern]{russian}
\setotherlanguage{english}

\setmainfont{CMU Serif}
\setsansfont{CMU Sans Serif}
\setmonofont{CMU Typewriter Text}

\usepackage{color}
\usepackage{minted}
\usepackage[russian]{hyperref}

\setmathfont{Latin Modern Math}

\frenchspacing

\begin{document}

Просто буквы % Plain letters
$\text{Память: } M_{\textnormal{доп}}(n) = \Theta(N)$
\end{document}


It would be a different problem if you wanted to use a cyrillic letter as a math variable, but your case is not this one.

If you need cyrillic letters as math variables, here's a way to set them up:

\documentclass[12pt]{book}

\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb}
\usepackage{unicode-math}
\usepackage{polyglossia}
\setdefaultlanguage[spelling=modern]{russian}
\setotherlanguage{english}

\setmainfont{CMU Serif}
\setsansfont{CMU Sans Serif}
\setmonofont{CMU Typewriter Text}

\usepackage[russian]{hyperref}

\setmathfont{Latin Modern Math}

\DeclareSymbolFont{cyrletters}{\encodingdefault}{\familydefault}{m}{it}
\newcommand{\makecyrmathletter}[1]{%
\begingroup\lccodea=#1\lowercase{\endgroup
\Umathcodea}="0 \csname symcyrletters\endcsname\space #1
}
\count255="409
\loop\ifnum\count255<"44F
\makecyrmathletter{\count255}
\repeat

\begin{document}
$(д+ф)^{2}=д^{2}+2дф+ф^{2}$
\end{document}


What does \makecyrmathletter do? Let's review it. The idea is that it takes as argument an integer and performs some magic. We use it in the following loop where the first cycle is

\makecyrmathletter{\count255}


with \count255 having the value "410 (hexadecimal), which corresponds to А U+0410 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER A.

In order to understand the code, I'll assume the explicit value is passed. The first level expansion is then

\begingroup\lccodea="410\lowercase{\endgroup
\Umathcodea}="0 \csname symcyrletters\endcsname\space "410


The strange \begingroup construction is used to obtain the letter from the number: we can loop through numbers, not letters. So inside the group, the \lccode of the letter a (the backtick notation is called “alphabetic constant”) to "410. With this setting, \lowercase will scan through its argument, changing every character token into its “lowercase” counterpart, but it actually uses the \lccode table. Then the result will be delivered to be scanned again. Hence we obtain

\endgroup\UmathcodeА="0 \csname symcyrletters\endcsname\space "410


(only the a is changed, control sequences pass through \lowercase with no change). The \endgroup does its job, namely to revert the change of \lccodea to what it was before, and vanishes.

Then the \Umathcode assignment is performed. It assigns А a math code, that is a new interpretation when found in math mode. The = should be followed by three numbers. The first one states the type of the object; 0 means an ordinary symbol; the second one tells XeTeX from what font family to take it. \csname symcyrletters\endcsname produces the number that has been assigned with the previous \DeclareSymbolFont declaration. Using a symbolic name we don't need to know what number is actually assigned. The third number tells XeTeX what slot the character should be taken from and we obviously choose "410, so a Cyrillic А. The three numbers should be separated by a space, which is explicit in the first case; we need \space in the second case, because leaving a blank space would not work. Since expansion is performed when looking for numbers, this \space is transformed in an actual space token.

A simpler loop can be used with expl3:

\ExplSyntaxOn

\int_step_inline:nnn { "410 } { "44F }
{
\Umathcode #1 = "0 ~ \use:c{ symcyrletters } ~ #1
}

\ExplSyntaxOff

• I would use M_{\mathrm{add}}(n) instead of \textup to avoid that the index can change along with the surrounding textfont (e.g. if this is in bold). For the "Memory:" it depends on the meaning. – Ulrike Fischer Sep 15 '14 at 13:05
• @UlrikeFischer The choice between \mathrm and \textup is subjective; the safest is, in my opinion, \textnormal, but having a formula in a boldface context should be quite rare (that is, never). Using a personal command reliefs from the burden. The word “Memory” instead should inherit the font from the context. – egreg Sep 15 '14 at 13:10
• Good solution, but not for my problem --- i really need cyrillic as part of math. Still, great thanks! – Lapshin Dmitry Sep 15 '14 at 16:16
• @LapshinDmitry I've added the method for defining the letters as math (italic) variables. If you don't want italics, change the {it} into {n}. – egreg Sep 15 '14 at 17:15
• @LapshinDmitry If you don't say what are your needs, it's just guessing. – egreg Sep 15 '14 at 17:48

There has been some discussion about Cyrillic in math but the issue is still open: https://github.com/wspr/unicode-math/issues/29

As Joseph mentioned you need fonts with the glyph. In case of math (if you don't switch to a text font with \text{..}) you also need to set mathcodes. E.g.;

\documentclass[12pt]{book}
\usepackage{unicode-math}
\setmainfont{Arial Unicode MS} %for text
\setmathfont[]{xits-math.otf}
\ExplSyntaxOn
\makeatletter
\Umathcode  #1="\mathchar@type\mathalpha \csname sym\um_symfont_tl\endcsname #1\relax
}
\int_step_inline:nnnn {1024}{1}{1154}{
}
\ExplSyntaxOff

\begin{document}
Просто буквы % Plain letters
$$Память: M_{доп}(n) = \Theta(N)$$ % Memory: M_add(n) = \Theta(n)
\end{document}


(The \Umathcode line is copied and adapted from an old message in the xetex list and I don't what the quoting sign at the begin is doing there ...)

• The " is the hexadecimal prefix, as usual. – egreg Sep 15 '14 at 12:34
• @egreg: Yes I suspected this. But is seems not to make a difference if it is there or not. OK. Looking at it \mathchar@type\mathalpha is 7 and so "7=7. – Ulrike Fischer Sep 15 '14 at 12:50
• Since math types are from 0 to 7 it really doesn't make any difference. – egreg Sep 15 '14 at 12:53
• Exactly the result I wanted. Thanks a lot. I know that non-math text shouldn't be at math-mode, but I need cyrillic, and I got it. – Lapshin Dmitry Sep 15 '14 at 16:16
• Hmm, a bit late to this answer but I ran into needing this today as well, and the above code with xelatex 0.999992 throws an error on the } after \relax with the log file saying "End of file on the terminal!". Any idea how to fix that? – Mike 'Pomax' Kamermans Jan 10 at 21:02

Just for fun - in the general case:

MWE

\documentclass[12pt]{article}

\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb}
\usepackage{unicode-math}

\setmainfont{Liberation Serif}

\setmathfont{XITS Math}

%See: https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/201239/cant-get-unicode-symbols-in-math-mode

\DeclareSymbolFont{cyrletters}{\encodingdefault}{\familydefault}{m}{it}
\newcommand{\makecyrmathletter}[1]{%
\begingroup\lccodea=#1\lowercase{\endgroup
\Umathcodea}="0 \csname symcyrletters\endcsname\space #1
}
\count255="409
\loop\ifnum\count255<"44F
\makecyrmathletter{\count255}
\repeat

%-----------
\setmainfont{Noto Serif Armenian}
%\familydefault = \rmdefault
\DeclareSymbolFont{armletters}{\encodingdefault}{NotoSerifArmenian(0)}{m}{n}
\newcommand{\makearmmathletter}[1]{%
\begingroup\lccodea=#1\lowercase{\endgroup
\Umathcodea}="0 \csname symarmletters\endcsname\space #1
}
\count255="530
\loop\ifnum\count255<"587
\makearmmathletter{\count255}
\repeat

%-----------
\setmainfont{Noto Serif Georgian}
\DeclareSymbolFont{geoletters}{\encodingdefault}{NotoSerifGeorgian(0)}{m}{n}
\newcommand{\makegeomathletter}[1]{%
\begingroup\lccodea=#1\lowercase{\endgroup
\Umathcodea}="0 \csname symgeoletters\endcsname\space #1
}
\count255="109F
\loop\ifnum\count255<"10FA
\makegeomathletter{\count255}
\repeat

%-----------
\setmainfont{Noto Serif Lao}
\DeclareSymbolFont{laoletters}{\encodingdefault}{NotoSerifLao(0)}{m}{n}
\newcommand{\makelaomathletter}[1]{%
\begingroup\lccodea=#1\lowercase{\endgroup
\Umathcodea}="0 \csname symlaoletters\endcsname\space #1
}
\count255="0E80
\loop\ifnum\count255<"0EDF
\makelaomathletter{\count255}
\repeat

%-----------
\setmainfont{Noto Sans Egyptian Hieroglyphs}
\DeclareSymbolFont{egyletters}{\encodingdefault}{NotoSansEgyptianHieroglyphs(0)}{m}{n}
\newcommand{\makeegymathletter}[1]{%
\begingroup\lccodea=#1\lowercase{\endgroup
\Umathcodea}="0 \csname symegyletters\endcsname\space #1
}
%\count255="13000
%\loop\ifnum\count255<"1342E %too many?
%  \makeegymathletter{\count255}
%\repeat
% has 1000 glyphs
\makeegymathletter{"13000}
\makeegymathletter{"13068}
\makeegymathletter{"1307B}
\makeegymathletter{"130D8}
\makeegymathletter{"131C1}

%-----------
\setmainfont{Noto Serif}

\begin{document}

Cyrillic:

$(д+ф)^{2}=д^{2}+2дф+ф^{2}м$

Armenian:

$(է+թ)^{2}=գ^{2}+2ե+ճդ^2-ա$

Georgian:

$(დ+ლ)^{2}=შ^{2}+2ლ+დშ^2-ა$

Lao:

$(ມ+ວ)^{2}=ມ^{2}+2ນ+ສວ^2-ກ$

Egyptian Hieroglyphs:

$(𓇁+𓁻)^{2}=𓀀^{2}+2𓃘+𓇁𓁻^2-𓁨$

\end{document}



And, of course, symbols can be combined:

Here is a way using fontspec package's NFSSFamily= font option to refer to the font families, rather than relying on the internal auto-generated name. And the other font options, such as colour and scale, are also available.

MWE

\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\usepackage{xcolor}
\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb}
\usepackage{unicode-math}

\setmainfont{Liberation Serif}

\setmathfont{XITS Math}

\newfontfamily\fcyr{Noto Serif}[Colour=blue,NFSSFamily=mycyr]
\newfontfamily\farm{Noto Serif Armenian}[Colour=red,NFSSFamily=myarm]
\newfontfamily\fgeo{Noto Serif Georgian ExtraBold}[Colour=brown,NFSSFamily=mygeo]
\newfontfamily\flao{Noto Serif Lao}[Scale=1.2,NFSSFamily=mylao]
\newfontfamily\fegy{Noto Sans Egyptian Hieroglyphs}[Colour=blue,Scale=1.1,NFSSFamily=myegy]

%See: https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/201239/cant-get-unicode-symbols-in-math-mode

\DeclareSymbolFont{cyrletters}{\encodingdefault}{mycyr}{m}{it}
\newcommand{\makecyrmathletter}[1]{%
\begingroup\lccodea=#1\lowercase{\endgroup
\Umathcodea}="0 \csname symcyrletters\endcsname\space #1
}
\count255="409
\loop\ifnum\count255<"44F
\makecyrmathletter{\count255}
\repeat

%-----------
\DeclareSymbolFont{armletters}{\encodingdefault}{myarm}{m}{n}
\newcommand{\makearmmathletter}[1]{%
\begingroup\lccodea=#1\lowercase{\endgroup
\Umathcodea}="0 \csname symarmletters\endcsname\space #1
}
\count255="530
\loop\ifnum\count255<"587
\makearmmathletter{\count255}
\repeat

%-----------
\DeclareSymbolFont{geoletters}{\encodingdefault}{mygeo}{m}{n}
\newcommand{\makegeomathletter}[1]{%
\begingroup\lccodea=#1\lowercase{\endgroup
\Umathcodea}="0 \csname symgeoletters\endcsname\space #1
}
\count255="109F
\loop\ifnum\count255<"10FA
\makegeomathletter{\count255}
\repeat

%-----------
\DeclareSymbolFont{laoletters}{\encodingdefault}{mylao}{m}{n}
\newcommand{\makelaomathletter}[1]{%
\begingroup\lccodea=#1\lowercase{\endgroup
\Umathcodea}="0 \csname symlaoletters\endcsname\space #1
}
\count255="0E80
\loop\ifnum\count255<"0EDF
\makelaomathletter{\count255}
\repeat

%-----------
\DeclareSymbolFont{egyletters}{\encodingdefault}{myegy}{m}{n}
\newcommand{\makeegymathletter}[1]{%
\begingroup\lccodea=#1\lowercase{\endgroup
\Umathcodea}="0 \csname symegyletters\endcsname\space #1
}
%\count255="13000
%\loop\ifnum\count255<"1342E %too many?
%  \makeegymathletter{\count255}
%\repeat
% has 1000 glyphs
\makeegymathletter{"13000}
\makeegymathletter{"13068}
\makeegymathletter{"1307B}
\makeegymathletter{"130D8}
\makeegymathletter{"131C1}

%-----------

\begin{document}

Cyrillic:

$(д+ф)^{2}=д^{2}+2дф+ф^{2}м$

Armenian:

$(է+թ)^{2}=գ^{2}+2ե+ճդ^2-ա$

Georgian:

$(დ+ლ)^{2}=შ^{2}+2ლ+დშ^2-ა$

Lao:

$(ມ+ວ)^{2}=ມ^{2}+2ນ+ສວ^2-ກ$

Egyptian Hieroglyphs:

$(𓇁+𓁻)^{2}=𓀀^{2}+2𓃘+𓇁𓁻^2-𓁨$

Combined:

$(𓇁_{ມ^უ}+𓁻)^{2}=𓀀^{2}+\frac{2𓃘}{է}+ф(Զ𓁻^2)-𓁨Ⴔ$

\end{document}