# Bibliography style of LNCS - how to get it works?

I'm discovering the Lecture Note in Computer Science (LNCS) LATEX template, and I'm in trouble with their bibliography system.

When reading their documentation and example, it appears that I only have to :

1) Create a thebibliography bloc and put in references using bibitem

2) Cite the references in the content of the document.

So let's take a simple example :

%+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
%|                                         PROPERTIES                                         |
%+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
\documentclass{llncs}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\bibliographystyle{splncs}

%+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
%+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
\title{A bar title.}

\author{Arthur Vaïsse-Lesteven  \inst{1}}
\institute{MAD -- University of Caen Lower-Normandy}

%+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
%|                                          DOCUMENT                                          |
%+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
\begin{document}

\maketitle

\begin{abstract}
It would rocks if I succed in citing \cite{Ser:thesis} !
\end{abstract}

%\printbibliography

\end{document}

%+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
%|                                        BIBLIOGRAPHY                                        |
%+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
\begin{thebibliography}{1}
\bibitem{Ser:thesis}
Serrano L.:
Vers une capitalisation des connaissances orientée utilisateur Extraction et structuration automatiques de l’information issue de sources ouvertes.
University of Caen Lower-Normandy, 2014.
\end{thebibliography}


It looks like the example given in the demonstration file "llncs.dem" provided with the template, but this code fail to produce a citation. Is a package missing ? Am I totally wrong ? I do not understand why LATEX do not succeed to reference it.

I tried different commands there is the results :

[PDFLATEX]: Citation 'Ser:thesis' on page 1 undefined on input line 25.

[LATEX]: Citation 'Ser:thesis' on page 1 undefined on input line 25.

[BIBTEX]: Finished with exit code 2

Whatever I try I still only obtain a PDF containing : "It would rocks if I succed in citing [?] !"

If someone can explain how to obtain a citation that works it would be appreciated!

NB : I already saw the answer at Question mark or bold citation key instead of citation number but as BIBTEX fail, calling LATEX then BIBTEX then LATEX again do not solve my problem.

• You don't need BibTeX if you write the bibliography by hand; but \end{document} should be moved after \end{thebibliography}. – egreg Oct 22 '14 at 14:32
• See latextemplates.github.io/LNCS for a maintained paper.tex with bibliography examples. – koppor Jul 14 '18 at 22:24

This works just fine :

\documentclass{llncs}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\bibliographystyle{splncs}

\title{A bar title.}

\author{Arthur Vaïsse-Lesteven  \inst{1}}
\institute{MAD -- University of Caen Lower-Normandy}

\begin{document}

\maketitle

\begin{abstract}
It would rocks if I succed in citing \cite{Ser:thesis} !
\end{abstract}

%\printbibliography

\begin{thebibliography}{1}
\bibitem{Ser:thesis}
Serrano L.:
Vers une capitalisation des connaissances orientée utilisateur Extraction et structuration automatiques de l’information issue de sources ouvertes.
University of Caen Lower-Normandy, 2014.
\end{thebibliography}

\end{document}


The only trick is that you have to compile pdflatex twice since there is no bibtex processing.

Result :

Use \usepackage{bibnames}

then add the following lines before \end{document}

\bibliographystyle{splncs03}

\bibliography{bib-file-name}

• LNCS doesn't like using bibtex and prefer to have embedded bibliographical references. So if it is for the submission of a paper, I'd recommend to not use bibtex or biblatex in the spirit of using strictly what is provided by the template. – Rémi Nazin Jan 9 '17 at 14:59
• The best way to go is to use bibtex (or biblatex) and include the *.bbl file in the final version. – user94293 Jan 9 '17 at 15:37
• @RémiZin - Are you sure about your claim that the llncs document class "doesn't like using bibtex"? – Mico Jan 9 '17 at 21:55
• @Mico I have published in LNCS sometime ago, the document class is perfectly fine but it is their modus operandi to put the biblio in the .tex file. And since it's their policy the best is to follow it. Furthermore, it works juste fine this way even if I concede I would rather had used my usual XeLaTex/Biber setting. – Rémi Nazin Jan 10 '17 at 0:49