With a lot of help from this site I have made some code for a new character ʾ (transcribed Arabic Hamza) consisting of a raised, small rotated c. This character needed special kerning for italic font for which I used some code from this question. After I added this I ran intro problems. The whole thing works fine for normal text, but when the character is put in a section command it gives errors. When I run the MWE below on sharelatex.com it gives Extra }, or forgotten \endgroup. When this character is in a section title in my larger project it gives TeX capacity exceeded, sorry [input stack size=50 00].

How can I make this work for section titles as well?




% test for italicness

% New character HAMZA



\textit{Liqāʾ al-yawn}

\section{\textit{Liqāʾ al-yawn}}


  • 1
    \protected\def'{...} if you plan to use it in a section title.
    – egreg
    Oct 23, 2014 at 7:47

1 Answer 1


Commands such as \rotatebox are fragile, meaning that they are not safe for usage in moving arguments (sectional titles or captions).

The simplest workaround is to use


so that TeX won't try expanding ' when writing to auxiliary files.

  • You're going to end up in the acknowledgement section in my dissertation at this rate.
    – Andreas
    Oct 23, 2014 at 8:48
  • I'd prefer a beer when I'm around Sweden! My best wishes for your dissertation.
    – egreg
    Oct 23, 2014 at 8:50

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