# Difference between \newpage and \vfill\eject

I think I understand the difference between newpage and pagebreak.

My question mostly comes out os curiosity. I came across this way to get a new page: \vfill\eject. What is the difference between this and just \newpage (or \pagebreak). Does it have an advantage?

• \vfill and \eject are tex primitives. they are used to define the latex commands \newpage and \pagebreak, but the latter contain additional checks. – barbara beeton Oct 23 '14 at 20:42
• @barbarabeeton are you sure \eject is primitive:-) – David Carlisle Oct 23 '14 at 20:55
• @DavidCarlisle -- ya got me. \eject is defined in plain.tex as {\par\penalty-10000 } (texbook version). it is "pre-latex", however. – barbara beeton Oct 23 '14 at 21:02

There is a big difference between \newpage and \vfill\eject.

• Definition of \newpage in LaTeX

% latex.ltx, line 6342:
\def \newpage {%
\if@noskipsec
\ifx \@nodocument\relax
\leavevmode
\global \@noskipsecfalse
\fi
\fi
\if@inlabel
\leavevmode
\global \@inlabelfalse
\fi
\if@nobreak \@nobreakfalse \everypar{}\fi
\par
\vfil
\penalty -\@M}

• Definition of \eject in Plain TeX

% plain.tex, line 558:
\def\break{\penalty-\@M}

% plain.tex, line 564:
\def\eject{\par\break}


LaTeX tries first to catch problems with \everypar; if \newpage is given in sectional titles or immediately after or else in lists, some countermeasures are taken.

After this the working is almost identical, but you can notice that \newpage issues \vfil, because of how it deals with \flushbottom and \raggedbottom. Both constructions end with \penalty-10000 that forces a page break.

• Thanks for this detailed answer. Would you be able to express this in more layman's terms? – Thomas Oct 25 '14 at 12:12
• @Thomas What's before \par in the definition of \newpage is somewhat technical; LaTeX, in some circumstances, sets some parameters in a way that's not appropriate for normal text and in those cases simply issue the penalty for forcing the page break would give wrong results. – egreg Oct 25 '14 at 15:45