When I attempt to include a table of contents in any file, it will not compile and I get a strange list of errors. For example,

\documentclass[11pt]{amsart}

\begin{document}

\section{Dummy section}

\end{document}


compiles with no trouble, while

\documentclass[11pt]{amsart}

\begin{document}

\tableofcontents

\section{Dummy section}

\end{document}


gives five errors, beginning with

Paragraph ended before \contentsline was complete
You can't use '\lastskip' in vertical mode.

• Welcome to TeX.SX! You can have a look at our starter guide to familiarize yourself further with our format. Have you tried removing the .aux file and compiling twice? – yo' Nov 11 '14 at 20:04
• Sorry, and have you removed the .toc file as well? – yo' Nov 11 '14 at 20:08
I can't say exactly what happened, but obviously LaTeX got interrupted by something during one of your compilations. This caused some incomplete data written into .aux and/or .toc and/or .lot, .lof, ... file. It is difficult to say what exactly it was, but deleting these files should solve the problem.