# Reducing spacing between section headings and text in resume

I want to reduce vertical spacing between end of text in education section and the title of the following section , i.e. ACADEMIC APPOINTMENT. Also, the space between PUBLICATION and Economics Journal. Finally want to know how to make the same space between section heading and text for each of sections in the resume.

My minimal working code is below;

\documentclass[12pt]{res}
\usepackage{datetime}
\usepackage{parskip}
\newdateformat{mydate}{\monthname[\THEMONTH] \THEYEAR}
\usepackage{fancyhdr}

\pagestyle{fancy}
\fancyhf{}

\fancypagestyle{plain}{
\fancyhf{}
}
\fancyfoot[L]{\footnotesize updated\today}
\setlength{\parindent}{0pt}
%\setlength{\parskip}{0pt}

\AtBeginDocument{\thispagestyle{empty}}

\fontfamily{phv}\selectfont

\topmargin=-0.5in

\oddsidemargin=0.0in
\evensidemargin=0.0in
\textwidth=6.0in

\setlength{\pdfpagewidth}{\paperwidth}
\setlength{\pdfpageheight}{\paperheight}
\makeatletter
\renewenvironment{thebibliography}[1]
{\list{\@biblabel{\@arabic\c@enumiv}}%
{\settowidth\labelwidth{\@biblabel{#1}}%
\leftmargin\labelwidth
\@openbib@code
\usecounter{enumiv}%
\let\p@enumiv\@empty
\renewcommand\theenumiv{\@arabic\c@enumiv}}%
\sloppy
\clubpenalty4000
\@clubpenalty \clubpenalty
\widowpenalty4000%
\sfcode\.\@m}
{\def\@noitemerr
{\@latex@warning{Empty thebibliography' environment}}%
\endlist}
\makeatother

\begin{document}

\name{\LARGE Name, PhD\\[12pt]}
\begin{resume}
\begin{tabular}{@{}p{0.20in}p{3.75in}p{3.00in}}
& Department of XXX              &  (XXX) XXX XXXX  \\
& XXXX   & Email:\href{mailto: nameu@XX.org}{name@xx.org} \\
&  Street number and name &  Fax: (XXX) XXX XXXX\\
&City, Zip XXXXX  &  \\
\end{tabular}

\section{\line(1,0){475}} %creates a horizontal line below the header

\section{\textnormal{EDUCATION}}
\vspace{0.1in}
{Ph.D.} Economics, XXX University \hfill 2009 \\
{M.S.} Statistics, ZZZ University \hfill 2010 \\

\vspace{0.1in}
{Assistant Professor,XXX} \hfill 2012-present\\\
{Research Scientist,YYY}\hfill 2010-2012\\
\section{\textnormal{RESEARCH INTERESTS}}
\vspace{0.1in}
Primary:XX and YY  \\
Secondary: ZZ
\section{\textnormal{PUBLICATIONS}}
\subsection{\textnormal{Economics Journal}}
\begin{thebibliography}{9}
\renewcommand\refname{}
\bibitem{XX2014a}  XX. and XX. "The first publication",\emph{ Name of the journal}, vol.X, pp.XX-YY, YYYY

\end{thebibliography}

\section{\textnormal{TEACHING EXPERIENCE}}

Course \hfill Semester Year \\
Course \hfill Semester Year \\
\end{resume}
\end{document}

• In my point of view, you should not use this 'old' class. It's from 2000 (as far as I know see in a quick check)
– user31729
Nov 25, 2014 at 22:16

The vertical space before a section is set in res.cls by \sectionskip, which you can redefine by placing something like this in your preamble: \sectionskip=1.5ex plus 0.7ex minus -.2ex On the other hand, \subsection is never mentioned in the file, but there is a line that says \LoadClassWithOptions{article} so it must use the default \subsection from the article class. Spacing before and after section titles is usually adjusted using the titlesec package, but trying to incorporate that into your MWE generates a lot of errors.