49

I am using the braket package to generate bra and ket vectors. However, I could not figure out how to do <0|0> using the package. Is there a command for this?

51

Use \braket{0|0}:

\documentclass{standalone}

\usepackage{braket}

\begin{document}

$\braket{0|0}$

\end{document}

enter image description here

  • 3
    I added an image of the result to your answer. I hope it's OK. – Gonzalo Medina Dec 1 '14 at 1:32
63

There is the physics package:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{physics}
\begin{document}
  $\bra{\Psi}\ket{\Psi}$ $\expval{A}{\Psi}$
\end{document}

enter image description here

It offers many other goodies for typsetting physics things. Details can be found in the manul (texdoc physics from command prompt/terminal).

  • 6
    I love you man, I had a lot of stuff the package implements, defined manually. – Alfredo Hernández Feb 25 '15 at 22:23
  • 5
    Do not use the physics package. The implementation is really horrible and it destroys the spacing all over the place. – Henri Menke Sep 4 '19 at 10:38
29

A solution using the mathtools package:

\documentclass{article}

\usepackage{mathtools}
\DeclarePairedDelimiter\bra{\langle}{\rvert}
\DeclarePairedDelimiter\ket{\lvert}{\rangle}
\DeclarePairedDelimiterX\braket[2]{\langle}{\rangle}{#1 \delimsize\vert #2}

\begin{document}

\begin{align*}
  \bra{a}       &= \bra*{\frac{a}{1}} \\
  \ket{a}       &= \ket*{\frac{a}{1}} \\
  \braket{a}{b} &= \braket*{\frac{a}{1}}{\frac{b}{1}}
\end{align*}

\end{document}

output

Notice that the starred versions of the macros scale automatically.

  • 1
    Hope one of a better suggestion... – MadyYuvi Sep 4 '19 at 10:41
8

A complement to the answers above. In case one wants to have a different operators in the left/right and want something in the middle the \expval does no help. An option is to use the \matrixelement in the physics package. This also have the advantage of the proper scaling of the bras & kets for disproportional operators.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{physics}
\begin{document}
\begin{equation}
 \mel{n}{A}{m}
\end{equation}
\end{document}

Result

  • 2
    Do not use the physics package. The implementation is really horrible and it destroys the spacing all over the place. – Henri Menke Sep 4 '19 at 10:40
  • Despite I did not have problems with the physics package, I can't disagree with you as i never check the implementation. If I found another formulation that solves the problem in such simple manner and has a better implementation, I will definitely update. Meanwhile we have your warning for anyone who may need/want to use it. – Guto Sep 4 '19 at 19:26
  • Actually, the construct in the example you show already destroys the spacing. Try \fbox{$\mel{n}{A}{m}$} (screenshot). You can see that there is more space on the left than on the right, which comes from the fact that the implementation of physics is utter garbage. – Henri Menke Sep 6 '19 at 6:54
3

You can use the \langle and \rangle commands. For example, to do <0|0>, you would do:

\langle 0 | 0 \rangle

Result:

enter image description here

If you have things which use vertical space (like fractions), you can use \left, \right and \middle to adjust the vertical size of the <, > and | symbols. For example:

\left\langle \frac{1}{2} \middle| 1 \right\rangle

Result:

enter image description here

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.