This question already has an answer here:

When compiling my bibliography I end up with weird "e. a." abbreviations in front of some entries:

[4] e. a. P. F. Swaszek, R. J. Hartnett, \Analysis of a simple, multiple receiver gps
spoof detector," in Proc. ION NTM, San Diego, California, January, 2013.
[5] e. a. N. O. Tippenhauer, C. Popper, \On the requirements of successful gps
spoofing attacks," in CCS'11, Chicago, 2011.
[6] e. a. J. Nielsen, A. Broumandan, \Gnss spoong detection for single antenna
handheld receivers," Navigation: Journal of the Institute of Navigation, vol.
vol 58, no. 4, pp. 335{344, 2011.

My bib file looks like:

@InProceedings{ pfsrjh1,

author      = "P. F. Swaszek, R. J. Hartnett",
title       = "Spoof detection using multiple COTS receivers in safety critical applications",
booktitle   = "Proc. ION GNSS",
address     = "Nashville, Tennessee",
year            = "September, 2013"

@InProceedings{ Tip1,
  author    = "N. O. Tippenhauer, C. Popper, et al",
  title     = "On the Requirements of Successful GPS Spoofing Attacks",
  booktitle   = "CCS'11",
  address = "Chicago",
  year      = "2011",
@Article{ Niel1,
  author    = "J. Nielsen, A. Broumandan, et al",
  title     = "GNSS Spoofing Detection for Single Antenna Handheld Receivers",
  journal   = "Navigation:  Journal of the Institute of Navigation",
  volume = "vol 58, no. 4",
  pages      = "335-344",
  year      ="2011"

There are other entries that do not cause this effect, and are formatted in the same way (at least as far as I can tell) For example:

@TechReport{ DAN019,

author      = "Spirent Communications PLC",
title       = "Keeping your eye on the sky",
address     = "Paignton, Devon, TQ4 7QR, England",
number      = "Spirent Application Note DAN019-TM",
institution = "Spirent Communications PLC",
year            = "2009"



[1] S. C. PLC, \Keeping your eye on the sky," Spirent Communications PLC,
Paignton, Devon, TQ4 7QR, England, Tech. Rep. Spirent Application Note
DAN019-TM, 2009.


marked as duplicate by Mico, Johannes_B, user31729, Werner, barbara beeton Dec 3 '14 at 18:51

This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.

  • 1
    Can you show us how you tell LaTeX to output the bibliography? – Johannes_B Dec 3 '14 at 18:01
  • 3
    Different authors are separated by the string and not by commas. ;-) – Johannes_B Dec 3 '14 at 18:02
  • 1
    You should't have "et al" in the raw bib file: do try to get the full list of authors. Note that "et al" is the source of the "e. a." strings. Separately, the author of the entry with key "DAN019" is a so-called corporate author: To make BibTeX understand that it's not dealing with a person with first name Spirent, middle name Communications, and surname PLC, you need to encase the entire name in an extra set of curly braces: author = "{Spirent Communications PLC}",. That way, no parsing will be performed, and the entry will be sorted under S for Spirent rather than under P for PLC. – Mico Dec 3 '14 at 18:14
  • @Johannes_B - Right on! That fixed it right up, and thanks for the link - very useful. Question answered. Thanks! – DSRadin Dec 3 '14 at 18:23