I would like to write down my lecture notes. The proofs of the theorems in this lecture are usually really big. It usually looks like this:

Theorem 1: Here comes the statement of the Theorem


  1. Without loss of generality let us assume...
  2. Claim 1: Statement.

Proof: Blah blah \endOfInnerProofSymbol

  1. Claim 2: Statement.

Proof. Blah blah \endOfInnerProofSymbol


So my question is now, how can I make such nested proofs with another QED-symbol than the parent proof (maybe a filled square)?

  • Welcome to TeX.SX! I'm quite sure this has already been discussed.
    – egreg
    Commented Jan 20, 2015 at 0:17

1 Answer 1


You can simply define a new environment subproof that mimics the behavior of proof but uses a filled square instead of the default one.


You can even give it the optional argument as in


so to print "Subproof" instead of "Proof".

MWE (note the \item after the outer proof to let enumerate start on a new line)




  Here comes the statement of the Theorem
    \item Without loss of generality let us assume...
    \item Claim 1: Statement.%
      Blah blah
    \item Claim 2: Statement.%
      Blah blah

enter image description here

  • Wow, this is exactly what I was looking for. Thank you very much for this detailed answer!
    – aexl
    Commented Jan 21, 2015 at 1:22
  • I would use \renewcommand{\qedsymbol}{\ensuremath{\blacksquare}} in case \qedsymbol is used in math mode. This will not happen in the definition of proof environments (that I know of), but just to be sure.
    – hife
    Commented Jan 9, 2020 at 11:29

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