# Some extra space in references IEEE

I have write this code (a simple citation):

\noindent to an acceptable level of approximation. Alternatively, some authors~\cite{roussas1997course} simply require that:


And used this command, for the references:

\newpage
\bibliographystyle{IEEEtran}
\bibliography{../bib}


The citation is this (in the figure, the n. 20):

@book{roussas1997course,
title={A course in mathematical statistics},
edition={2},
author={Roussas, George G},
year={1997},
pages = {397},
}


Here are the result:

This happens when I use @book in the references, but I do not know why.

Thank you in advances.

• are you not using bibtex? (the question is tagged biblatex, which is a different system) – David Carlisle Jan 31 '15 at 11:39
• It seems to be a design choice in IEEEtran.bst, that uses the large.space function in those cases; specifically, it uses large.space before the publisher's data. – egreg Jan 31 '15 at 11:41
• I have used \noindent only because this is paragraph after an equation that haven't a full stop. – Giacomo Alessandroni Jan 31 '15 at 11:43
• @GiacomoAlessandroni Then just put it after the equation with no empty line inbetween, and it'll be fine. – yo' Jan 31 '15 at 11:45
• Thank you @david-carlisle, I use BibTeX and I have indicated a wrong tag. I see that now is right, sorry. – Giacomo Alessandroni Jan 31 '15 at 11:46

This is part of IEEEtran.bst:

% The more flexible and complex design used here was motivated in part by
% IEEE's rather unusual bibliography style. For example, IEEE ends the
% previous field item with a period and large space prior to the publisher
% address; the @electronic entry types use periods as inter-item punctuation
% rather than the commas used by the other entry types; and URLs are never
% followed by periods even though they are the last item in the entry.
% Although it is possible to accommodate these features with the conventional
% output state system, the seemingly endless exceptions make for convoluted,
% unreliable and difficult to maintain code.


Indeed, before adding the publisher data, the IEEEtran.bst program applies the function large.space that's defined as

FUNCTION {large.space} { "\hskip 1em plus 0.5em minus 0.4em\relax " }


So it's “by design”.

• I have found this line (262) in IEEEtrans.bst, which explains the extra spaces. But I use (in my directory) only the IEEEtrans.cls. This document isn't a proceeding, but only a thesys. I use IEEEtrans.cls in the references for having a homogeneous layout. – Giacomo Alessandroni Jan 31 '15 at 13:15
• @GiacomoAlessandroni This is independent of the class: it's due just to IEEEtran.bst. – egreg Jan 31 '15 at 13:33