4

When using Thebibliography Environment we have to type {} before any reference, for example:

\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
...
\begin{thebibliography}{99}
\bibitem {} D. Hilbert, The concept of Groups, ...
\end{thebibliography}
\end{document}

The problem is that if I wish to put, say H89 in {}, the output still shows the number indicating the order of the paper. So in such a case, how do I arbitrarily put what I wish to put in {}?

1 Answer 1

4

You need to write

\bibitem[Hil89]{H89} D. Hilbert, The concept of Groups, ...

The material in curly braces is the "citation key" -- use it in commands such as

\cite{H89}

In contrast, the material in square brackets, which is optional, is what will be shown as the output of the preceding citation command. If no optional argument is provided, the default, i.e., numeric output is produced.

Here's what is produced by an edited version of your example code.

enter image description here

\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
As shown in \cite{H89}, \dots
\begin{thebibliography}{99}
\bibitem[Hil89]{H89} D. Hilbert, The Concept of Groups, \dots
\end{thebibliography}
\end{document}

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