3

The babel attempt

The following code, that contains Hebrew, is successfully imported to pdf using pdflatex:

\documentclass{article}
%\usepackage[T1, OT1]{fontenc}
\usepackage[utf8x]{inputenc}
\usepackage[hebrew,english]{babel}
%\sethebrew

\begin{document}

%\selectlanguage{hebrew}

\title{Title}
\author{Me}
\date{2015}
\maketitle

\sethebrew
שלום! זהו מסמך \LaTeX\  בעברית.
\end{document}

The problem is when writing Hebrew characters in the \title directive:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[utf8x]{inputenc}
\usepackage[hebrew,english]{babel}

\begin{document}

\selectlanguage{hebrew}

\title{כותרת}
\author{Me}
\date{2015}
\maketitle

\sethebrew
שלום! זהו מסמך \LaTeX\  בעברית.
\end{document}

In such case, the following log file is created: http://pastebin.com/FqQX2qKG
Notice the message:
!pdfTeX error: pdflatex (file jerus10): Font jerus10 at 720 not found

The Polyglossia attempt

I've also tried using Polyglossia, as recommended by "egreg" here.
I copied his code and ran xetex on the file, but it provided the following error/log:

This is XeTeX, Version 3.1415926-2.5-0.9999.3 (TeX Live 2013/Debian) (format=xelatex 2015.3.4)  4 MAR 2015 15:26
entering extended mode
 restricted \write18 enabled.
 %&-line parsing enabled.
**./hebrew_polyglossia.tex
(./hebrew_polyglossia.tex
LaTeX2e <2011/06/27>
Babel <3.9h> and hyphenation patterns for 10 languages loaded.
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/article.cls
Document Class: article 2007/10/19 v1.4h Standard LaTeX document class
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/size10.clo
File: size10.clo 2007/10/19 v1.4h Standard LaTeX file (size option)
)
\c@part=\count80
\c@section=\count81
\c@subsection=\count82
\c@subsubsection=\count83
\c@paragraph=\count84
\c@subparagraph=\count85
\c@figure=\count86
\c@table=\count87
\abovecaptionskip=\skip41
\belowcaptionskip=\skip42
\bibindent=\dimen102
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/fontspec/fontspec.sty
Package: fontspec 2013/05/20 v2.3c Font selection for XeLaTeX and LuaLaTeX

(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/expl3.sty
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3names.sty
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3bootstrap.sty
Package: l3bootstrap 2014/01/04 v4640 L3 Experimental bootstrap code
)
Package: l3names 2014/01/04 v4640 L3 Namespace for primitives
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/etex-pkg/etex.sty
Package: etex 1998/03/26 v2.0 eTeX basic definition package (PEB)
\et@xins=\count88
)
Package: expl3 2014/01/07 v4646 L3 Experimental code bundle wrapper

(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3basics.sty
Package: l3basics 2014/01/04 v4642 L3 Basic definitions
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3expan.sty
Package: l3expan 2014/01/04 v4642 L3 Argument expansion
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3tl.sty
Package: l3tl 2013/12/27 v4625 L3 Token lists
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3seq.sty
Package: l3seq 2013/12/14 v4623 L3 Sequences and stacks
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3int.sty
Package: l3int 2013/08/02 v4583 L3 Integers
\c_max_int=\count89
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\l_tmpb_int=\count91
\g_tmpa_int=\count92
\g_tmpb_int=\count93
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3quark.sty
Package: l3quark 2013/12/14 v4623 L3 Quarks
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3prg.sty
Package: l3prg 2014/01/04 v4642 L3 Control structures
\g__prg_map_int=\count94
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3clist.sty
Package: l3clist 2013/07/28 v4581 L3 Comma separated lists
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3token.sty
Package: l3token 2013/08/25 v4587 L3 Experimental token manipulation
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3prop.sty
Package: l3prop 2013/12/14 v4623 L3 Property lists
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3msg.sty
Package: l3msg 2013/07/28 v4581 L3 Messages
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3file.sty
Package: l3file 2013/10/13 v4596 L3 File and I/O operations
\l_iow_line_count_int=\count95
\l__iow_target_count_int=\count96
\l__iow_current_line_int=\count97
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\l__iow_current_indentation_int=\count99
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3skip.sty
Package: l3skip 2013/07/28 v4581 L3 Dimensions and skips
\c_zero_dim=\dimen103
\c_max_dim=\dimen104
\l_tmpa_dim=\dimen105
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\g_tmpa_dim=\dimen107
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\c_zero_skip=\skip43
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\c_zero_muskip=\muskip10
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\g_tmpa_muskip=\muskip14
\g_tmpb_muskip=\muskip15
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3keys.sty
Package: l3keys 2013/12/08 v4614 L3 Experimental key-value interfaces
\g__keyval_level_int=\count100
\l_keys_choice_int=\count101
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3fp.sty
Package: l3fp 2014/01/04 v4642 L3 Floating points
\c__fp_leading_shift_int=\count102
\c__fp_middle_shift_int=\count103
\c__fp_trailing_shift_int=\count104
\c__fp_big_leading_shift_int=\count105
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\c__fp_Bigg_trailing_shift_int=\count110
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3box.sty
Package: l3box 2013/07/28 v4581 L3 Experimental boxes
\c_empty_box=\box26
\l_tmpa_box=\box27
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\g_tmpa_box=\box29
\g_tmpb_box=\box30
)
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Package: l3coffins 2013/12/14 v4624 L3 Coffin code layer
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\c_empty_coffin=\box32
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\l__coffin_display_offset_dim=\dimen116
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)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3color.sty
Package: l3color 2012/08/29 v4156 L3 Experimental color support
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3luatex.sty
Package: l3luatex 2013/07/28 v4581 L3 Experimental LuaTeX-specific functions
\g__cctab_allocate_int=\count111
\g__cctab_stack_int=\count112
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3kernel/l3candidates.sty
Package: l3candidates 2014/01/06 v4643 L3 Experimental additions to l3kernel
\l__box_top_dim=\dimen119
\l__box_bottom_dim=\dimen120
\l__box_left_dim=\dimen121
\l__box_right_dim=\dimen122
\l__box_top_new_dim=\dimen123
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\l__box_internal_box=\box40
\l__coffin_bounding_shift_dim=\dimen127
\l__coffin_left_corner_dim=\dimen128
\l__coffin_right_corner_dim=\dimen129
\l__coffin_bottom_corner_dim=\dimen130
\l__coffin_top_corner_dim=\dimen131
\l__coffin_scaled_total_height_dim=\dimen132
\l__coffin_scaled_width_dim=\dimen133
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/generic/oberdiek/ifpdf.sty
Package: ifpdf 2011/01/30 v2.3 Provides the ifpdf switch (HO)
Package ifpdf Info: pdfTeX in PDF mode is not detected.
))
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/l3packages/xparse/xparse.sty
Package: xparse 2013/12/31 v4634 L3 Experimental document command parser
\l__xparse_current_arg_int=\count113
\l__xparse_m_args_int=\count114
\l__xparse_mandatory_args_int=\count115
\l__xparse_processor_int=\count116
\l__xparse_v_nesting_int=\count117
)
\l_fontspec_script_int=\count118
\l_fontspec_language_int=\count119
\l_fontspec_strnum_int=\count120
\l_fontspec_tmpa_dim=\dimen134
\l_fontspec_tmpb_dim=\dimen135
\l_fontspec_tmpc_dim=\dimen136
Variant \tl_gset:cV already defined; not changing it on line 69

(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/fontspec/fontspec-patches.sty
Package: fontspec-patches 2013/05/20 v2.3c Font selection for XeLaTeX and LuaLa
TeX

(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/fixltx2e.sty
Package: fixltx2e 2006/09/13 v1.1m fixes to LaTeX
LaTeX Info: Redefining \em on input line 420.
)
LaTeX Info: Redefining \em on input line 22.
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LaTeX Info: Redefining \- on input line 33.

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* LaTeX warning: "xparse/redefine-command"
* 
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) (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/fontspec/fontspec-xetex.sty
Package: fontspec-xetex 2013/05/20 v2.3c Font selection for XeLaTeX and LuaLaTe
X

(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/fontenc.sty
Package: fontenc 2005/09/27 v1.99g Standard LaTeX package

(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/euenc/eu1enc.def
File: eu1enc.def 2010/05/27 v0.1h Experimental Unicode font encodings
)
LaTeX Font Info:    Try loading font information for EU1+lmr on input line 100.


(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/euenc/eu1lmr.fd
File: eu1lmr.fd 2009/10/30 v1.6 Font defs for Latin Modern
))
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/xelatex/xunicode/xunicode.sty
File: xunicode.sty 2011/09/09 v0.981 provides access to latin accents and many 
other characters in Unicode lower plane

(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/tipa/t3enc.def
File: t3enc.def 2001/12/31 T3 encoding
LaTeX Font Info:    Try loading font information for EU1+lmss on input line 357
.

(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/euenc/eu1lmss.fd
File: eu1lmss.fd 2009/10/30 v1.6 Font defs for Latin Modern
))
\tipaTiiicode=\count121
\tipasavetokens=\toks14
\tipachecktokens=\toks15

(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/graphicx.sty
Package: graphicx 1999/02/16 v1.0f Enhanced LaTeX Graphics (DPC,SPQR)

(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/keyval.sty
Package: keyval 1999/03/16 v1.13 key=value parser (DPC)
\KV@toks@=\toks16
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/graphics.sty
Package: graphics 2009/02/05 v1.0o Standard LaTeX Graphics (DPC,SPQR)

(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/trig.sty
Package: trig 1999/03/16 v1.09 sin cos tan (DPC)
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(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/latexconfig/graphics.cfg
File: graphics.cfg 2010/04/23 v1.9 graphics configuration of TeX Live
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Package graphics Info: Driver file: xetex.def on input line 91.

(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/xelatex/xetex-def/xetex.def
File: xetex.def 2013/04/29 v0.96 LaTeX color/graphics driver for XeTeX (RRM/JK)

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(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/fontspec/fontspec.cfg)))
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/polyglossia/polyglossia.sty
Package: polyglossia 2013/06/27 v1.33.4 Babel replacement for XeLaTeX and LuaTe
X

(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/etoolbox/etoolbox.sty
Package: etoolbox 2011/01/03 v2.1 e-TeX tools for LaTeX
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Package: xkeyval 2012/10/14 v2.6b package option processing (HA)

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\xpg@normalclass=\XeTeXintercharclass4
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(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/polyglossia/gloss-hebrew.ldf
File: gloss-hebrew.ldf polyglossia: module for hebrew

(./bidi.sty
Package: bidi 2007/04/30 v0.2.2 Bidirectional typesetting in XeLaTeX
\n@everypar=\toks19
) (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/polyglossia/hebrewcal.sty
Package: hebrewcal 2012/04/29 v2.5 Hebrew calendar for polyglossia (adapted fro
m hebcal.sty in Babel)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/polyglossia/cal-util.def
\c@tmpA=\count125
\c@tmpB=\count126
\c@tmpC=\count127
\c@tmpD=\count128
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)
\hebrewday=\count131
\hebrewmonth=\count132
\hebrewyear=\count133
\@common=\count134
)
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/polyglossia/babel-hebrewalph.def
File: babel-hebrewalph.def 2010/03/02 Babel definitions for Hebrew numerals
 Adapted from hebrew.ldf (2005/03/30 v2.3h)


! LaTeX Error: Command \hebrewnumeral already defined.
               Or name \end... illegal, see p.192 of the manual.

See the LaTeX manual or LaTeX Companion for explanation.
Type  H <return>  for immediate help.
 ...                                              

l.8 ...false\@gim@apostfalse\@hebrew@numeral{#1}}}

? 
! Emergency stop.
 ...                                              

l.8 ...false\@gim@apostfalse\@hebrew@numeral{#1}}}

Your command was ignored.
Type  I <command> <return>  to replace it with another command,
or  <return>  to continue without it.


Here is how much of TeX's memory you used:
 13563 strings out of 495525
 279639 string characters out of 6184337
 317031 words of memory out of 5000000
 16678 multiletter control sequences out of 15000+600000
 3680 words of font info for 19 fonts, out of 8000000 for 9000
 80 hyphenation exceptions out of 8191
 46i,0n,37p,10420b,95s stack positions out of 5000i,500n,10000p,200000b,80000s
No pages of output.

I've installed countless of packages, fonts etc., to no avail.
What is the problem and how should I fix it?

I'm using Ubuntu 14.


Edit #1:

"Ulrike Fischer" has directed me to remove the file "bidi.sty" from the local directory and to run xelatex again.
Here are the results (log file): http://pastebin.com/z24w4jwt

Notice that it requires a bidi.sty file: ! LaTeX Error: File `bidi.sty' not found.


Edit #2:

I tried to install TeX Live 2010's tlnet as directed here.
But it has an incompatibility issue.

$ tlmgr option repository ftp://tug.org/historic/systems/texlive/2010/tlnet-final
(running on Debian, switching to user mode!)
cannot setup TLPDB in /home/dor/texmf at /usr/bin/tlmgr line 5336.
$ tlmgr init-usertree
(running on Debian, switching to user mode!)
$ tlmgr option repository ftp://tug.org/historic/systems/texlive/2010/tlnet-final
(running on Debian, switching to user mode!)
/usr/bin/tlmgr: Initialization failed (in setup_unix_one):
/usr/bin/tlmgr: could not find a usable xzdec.
/usr/bin/tlmgr: Please install xzdec and try again.
Couldn't set up the necessary programs.
Installation of packages is not supported.
Please report to texlive@tug.org.
Continuing anyway ...
tlmgr: setting default package repository to ftp://tug.org/historic/systems/texlive/2010/tlnet-final

### Here I installed the 'xzdec' package via Ubuntu Software Center

$ tlmgr option repository ftp://tug.org/historic/systems/texlive/2010/tlnet-final
(running on Debian, switching to user mode!)
tlmgr: setting default package repository to ftp://tug.org/historic/systems/texlive/2010/tlnet-final
$ tlmgr install collection-xetex
(running on Debian, switching to user mode!)
tlmgr: The TeX Live versions of the local installation
and the repository are not compatible:
      local: 2013
 repository: 2010 (ftp://tug.org/historic/systems/texlive/2010/tlnet-final)
(Perhaps you need to use a different CTAN mirror? Just a guess.)

Edit #3:

I installed TeX Live 2013's tlnet, as can be seen here.
But when:

  • running xetex, it yields Undefined control sequence error for documentclass.
  • running xelatex, it still yields File `bidi.sty' not found error.

Edit #4:

I ran commands to install bidi and to update the packages. Results:

  • xetex: error of Undefined control sequence for documentclass, see details
  • xelatex: error of File `iftex.sty' not found, see details.
    So I installed it using the command tlmgr install iftex.
    Finally an error of missing font arises: fontspec error: "font-not-found", which is related to the New Peninim MT font. So I switched it to "Arial" and "arial" but still it failed for the same reason.
    So I searched in LibreOffice Writer which fonts I have that I can use for Hebrew, and found DejaVu Sans that worked!

Now it works!!! :) Thank you Ulrike Fischer.

  • 1
    In the xelatex example you are loading a bibi.sty from the current directory which looks very old. Remove it and try again. – Ulrike Fischer Mar 4 '15 at 14:17
  • @UlrikeFischer: I did that and updated my original post with the results. Please review them.. – Dor Mar 4 '15 at 16:28
  • Well you need to install bidi. You could try to update your texlive from an historic archive tex.stackexchange.com/questions/25089/… (exchange 2010 with 2013), or you could install texlive 2014. – Ulrike Fischer Mar 4 '15 at 16:36
  • @UlrikeFischer I installed texlive using Ubuntu Software Center but still the same results. Why would you recommend on downgrading to 2010? Is the 2014 version unstable? – Dor Mar 4 '15 at 16:45
  • You don't have 2014 but 2013. And I didn't suggest to downgrade to 2010 (which would be silly) but to install bidi with tlmgr (if you have the manager) from the 2013 historic repository. The link I sent shows how to do it for Texlive2010, but the method works in 2013 too, you only musst adapt the url of the repository. – Ulrike Fischer Mar 4 '15 at 16:49
2

To get Hebrew to work with pdftex you need to install culmus-latex in order to have proper fonts. The jerus10 file you see reference to was part of the now obsolete Ivritex package.

Typesetting Hebrew directly in LaTeX is a nightmare of directionality and I would recommend you to avoid it. Lyx has good support for Hebrew and can be set up to work with either pdftex (using culmus-latex) or with XeTeX and polyglossia (following the instructions here).

  • The instructions do not appear to say anything about setting it up in LyX? – cfr Jul 3 '15 at 1:11
  • Right, I linked to the wrong post, the correct one is: Creating a Hebrew Document in LyX 2.1 with XeTeX – Guy Jul 4 '15 at 18:10
  • Indeed, using polyglossia and setting \setmainlanguage{hebrew} makes the document Right to Left with English words in the wrong direction. Why is it such a nightmare to make the RTL work properly in LaTeX? I'd really like to write the Tex source code myself, without other "supporting" programs.. – Dor Apr 23 '16 at 10:56
  • @Guy Thanks for the article, very helpful! Question: I'm using the F12 shortcut but it only changes the direction of the text: RTL or LTR. I need to also press ALT + SHIFT in order to actually change the language. Any idea on how do I change the language with a single click? – Dor Apr 24 '16 at 13:43
0

For unicode Hebrew, the easiest is to use xelatex and the "Lucida Grande" font.

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