I would like to create a matrix with arrows next to it. Say, I created a 10x10 matrix in Latex. Then, I want to put one arrow parallel to the "x-axis" of the matrix and I want to label the arrow, e.g. with "variables". The same for the vertical axis which I want to label, say, "observations".

Is there any way to do this in Latex? Thanks in advance!

  • 1
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    – user31729
    Mar 13, 2015 at 12:26

1 Answer 1


Try this. Both arrows should automatically expand base on the size of the matrix. You may want to shorten the horizontal arrow a bit, but it'd be hard to do without manually specifying the width of the matrix through the use of custom spacer such as \hphantom{\hrule{1cm}} replacing the \hphantom part of the code below, unless someone has better idea.

enter image description here


\text{\tiny observations}\mymatrix{\begin{pmatrix}
        a_{1,1} & a_{1,2} & \cdots & a_{1,n} \\
        a_{2,1} & a_{2,2} & \cdots & a_{2,n} \\
        \vdots  & \vdots  & \ddots & \vdots  \\
        a_{m,1} & a_{m,2} & \cdots & a_{m,n}
  • Exactly what I was looking for. Thanks a lot, great solution! You're correct about shortening the horizontal arrow, though. It would be nice to have an easy solution here.
    – GS9
    Mar 13, 2015 at 15:07
  • @GS9 You can also use \newcommand{\mymatrix}[1]{\ensuremath{\left\downarrow\vphantom{#1}\right.\overset{\xrightarrow[\hphantom{#1}]{\text{variables}}}{\left(#1\right)}}} and change pmatrix to matrix. This slightly shortens the horizontal arrow because this leave the curly brace out of the automatic horizontal length measurement. Mar 13, 2015 at 15:53

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