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It happens quite often in long LaTeX files that LaTeX "tries" to fill a page, but because of various priority rules to theorem environments for example very much white space and large line spacing is produced. It's hard for me to produce a minimal example for this, but I think you have all seen this. Here is a screenshot of an example:

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Of course this is very unpleasant. Usually I try to get rid of the problem with ad-hoc solutions, for example expanding some paragraph etc. This costs a lot of time, especially in long texts, and after a small layout change one might start over again. How to prevent this automatically? Or at least, how to let LaTeX send warnings to the compiler each time too much white space (which we would have to define first?) is produced? Or, how do you deal with this sort of problem?

closed as unclear what you're asking by Mensch, user13907, darthbith, Svend Tveskæg, percusse Sep 13 '15 at 19:41

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    it looks like the elements with headings are defined with fixed space above, while ordinary paragraph breaks have stretch. but of course, to be able to check that, we need to know what documentclass and relevant packages are being used. my immediate reaction is that some stretch should be included in the space before a theorem object, but without knowing what's producing this output, can't be more specific. – barbara beeton Mar 21 '15 at 15:40
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    \raggedbottom would put all extra space at the bottom, that is the only general alternative, otherwise you need to see why your page is short and being stretched, ie what is at the top of the next page that could not be placed on this.... – David Carlisle Mar 21 '15 at 16:39
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    You presumably did get underfull vbox warnings for that page unless you have specified that space can stretch that much. As you have provided no example, impossible to say really. – David Carlisle Mar 21 '15 at 16:41

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