1

I already found some entries concerning the same general problem (here, here, and here) but none of them helped me to solve my problem.

I am compiling my literature list into a pdf using BibLaTeX with biber, and I get five errors which seem to have to do with the bib-file. The LaTeX log-file says:

[43] [44] [45] [46] [47]
! Missing $ inserted.
<inserted text> 
                $
l.76 \printbibliography[title={Literature list}]

I've inserted a begin-math/end-math symbol since I think
you left one out. Proceed, with fingers crossed.

! Missing $ inserted.
<inserted text> 
                $
l.76 \printbibliography[title={Literature list}]

I've inserted something that you may have forgotten.
(See the <inserted text> above.)
With luck, this will get me unwedged. But if you
really didn't forget anything, try typing `2' now; then
my insertion and my current dilemma will both disappear.

! Missing $ inserted.
<inserted text> 
                $
l.76 \printbibliography[title={Literature list}]

I've inserted a begin-math/end-math symbol since I think
you left one out. Proceed, with fingers crossed.

! You can't use `\spacefactor' in math mode.
\reserved@b ->\spacefactor 
                           \@m 
l.76 \printbibliography[title={Literature list}]

Sorry, but I'm not programmed to handle this case;
I'll just pretend that you didn't ask for it.
If you're in the wrong mode, you might be able to
return to the right one by typing `I}' or `I$' or `I\par'.

! Missing $ inserted.
<inserted text> 
                $
l.76 \printbibliography[title={Literature list}]

I've inserted something that you may have forgotten.
(See the <inserted text> above.)
With luck, this will get me unwedged. But if you
really didn't forget anything, try typing `2' now; then
my insertion and my current dilemma will both disappear.

So, I interpret that such that there are math-modes in the bib-file which I either forgot to end, or that they are assumed due to some other coding error. Since the file has well over 1000 entries, the suggestion of commenting it and then slowly reincluding it until the error occurs is no easy option. Since I do not want to upload the whole bib-file here, I do not provide a minimal example either.

My question is simply: Is there any way that I can find out which entries cause the problem? I attached the .blg file of biber, but did not find anything related to the problem. Running biber --tools --debug File.bib also did not provide any more useful information.

BLG-File:

[0] Config.pm:320> INFO - This is Biber 1.9
[0] Config.pm:322> INFO - Config file is 'C:\Users\Manuel\University\Digital Literature\Literature\AAALiteratureDatabases\biber.conf'
[0] Config.pm:323> INFO - Logfile is 'Literaturliste.blg'
[33] biber-MSWIN:274> INFO - === %a %b %e, %Y, %H:%M:%S
[33] Biber.pm:333> INFO - Reading 'Literaturliste.bcf'
[112] Biber.pm:632> INFO - Using all citekeys in bib section 0
[149] Biber.pm:3051> INFO - Processing section 0
[177] Biber.pm:3189> INFO - Looking for bibtex format file 'LiteratureDatabase.bib' for section 0
[326] bibtex.pm:990> INFO - Decoding LaTeX character macros into UTF-8
[504] bibtex.pm:864> INFO - Found BibTeX data source 'LiteratureDatabase.bib'
[1963] Utils.pm:144> WARN - BibTeX subsystem: C:\Users\Manuel\AppData\Local\Temp\mVa3gb927C\LiteratureDatabase.bib_11652.utf8, line 4319, warning: possible runaway string started at line 4305
[1964] Utils.pm:144> WARN - BibTeX subsystem: warning: comma(s) at end of name (removing)
[1964] Utils.pm:144> WARN - BibTeX subsystem: editor, warning: comma(s) at end of name (removing)
[1964] Utils.pm:144> WARN - BibTeX subsystem: warning: comma(s) at end of name (removing)
[1965] Utils.pm:144> WARN - BibTeX subsystem: author, warning: comma(s) at end of name (removing)
[17403] UCollate.pm:66> INFO - Overriding locale 'en-GB' defaults 'variable = shifted' with 'variable = non-ignorable'
[17404] UCollate.pm:66> INFO - Overriding locale 'en-GB' defaults 'normalization = NFD' with 'normalization = prenormalized'
[17404] Biber.pm:2928> INFO - Sorting list 'nyt' of type 'entry' with scheme 'nyt' and locale 'en-GB'
[17404] Biber.pm:2932> INFO - No sort tailoring available for locale 'en-GB'
[20933] bbl.pm:517> INFO - Writing 'Literaturliste.bbl' with encoding 'latin9'
[20936] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'AdamsEtAl:2014' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[20941] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'AlizonEtAl:2008' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[20947] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'AndreEtAl:2013' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[20953] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'AurahsEtAl:2009' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[20954] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'AurahsEtAl:2011' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[20973] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'BitonEtAl:2010' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[20976] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Blanckenhorn:2000' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[20983] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Brady:1877' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[20992] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'CalinskiHarabesz:1974' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[20997] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'CarpenterBithell:2000' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21002] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'ChrysafiSheldon:2006' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21010] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'CopperPurvis:2009' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21016] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'DarlingEtAl:2006' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21017] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'DarlingEtAl:2004' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21019] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'DarlingEtAl:2007' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21021] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'DarlingEtAl:2003' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21050] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'FergusonEtAl:2008' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21062] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Galileo:1638' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21086] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'HayesEtAl:2005' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21102] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'HoneBenton:2005' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21106] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'HovermanRelyea:2007' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21112] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'HuebscherEtAl:2010' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21118] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'ItouEtAl:2001' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21138] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Kucera:1997' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21140] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Kucera:1998' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21142] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Kucera:2007' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21145] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'KuceraKennett:2000' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21147] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'KuceraKennett:2002' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21148] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'KuceraMalmgren:1996' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21150] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'KuceraMalmgren:1998a' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21152] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'KuceraMalmgren:1998' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21155] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'KuceraEtAl:2005' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21158] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'KuceraWidmark:2000' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21168] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Leinfelder:2009' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21170] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'LensEtAl:2002' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21178] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'LohmannMalmgren:1983' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21182] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'LoncaricEtAl:2005' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21184] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Ludwig:1999' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21193] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'MalmgrenEtAl:1996' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21197] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'MarinoEtAl:2009' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21208] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'deMoelEtAl:2009' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21212] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'MollerEtAl:2012' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21213] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'MollerEtAl:2013' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21216] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'MoritzAgudo:2013' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21220] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Murray:2000' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21224] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'NaikEtAl:2011' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21227] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'NegriEtAl:2003' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21229] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'NelsonLadiges:2009' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21237] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Nowak:1992' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21241] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'NumbergerEtAl:2009' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21253] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'PawlowskiEtAl:2013' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21258] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Pigliucci:2005' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21268] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'vanRadenEtAl:2011' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21271] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Rasmuson:2002' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21282] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'RohlingEtAl:2010' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21285] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'RohlingEtAl:2009a' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21288] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'RohlingEtAl:2008' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21292] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'RohlingEtAl:2008a' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21302] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'RuefflerEtAl:2006' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21309] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'SarntheimEtAl:2004' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21315] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Schmalhauzen:1949' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21316] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'SchmidtEtAl:2006' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21319] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Schmuker:2000' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21322] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'SchneiderGrunert:2007' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21337] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'SicchaEtAl:2009' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21344] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'SilleEtAl:2004' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21348] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Smirnov:1948' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21357] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Stemmer:2013' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21362] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'StorzEtAl:2009' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21369] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'TaenzlerEtAl:2012' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21370] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'TelfordKucera:2013' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21375] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Trask:1937' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21378] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'TrommerEtAl:2011' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21380] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'TrommerEtAl:2010' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21382] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Tyszka:2006' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21384] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'TyszkaEtAl:2005' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21391] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'Via:1993' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21399] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'WeinerEtAl:2012' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21411] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'YoderKennelly:2005' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21414] Utils.pm:144> WARN - The entry 'ZeebeSanyal:2002' has characters which cannot be encoded in 'latin9'. Recoding problematic characters into macros.
[21420] bbl.pm:606> INFO - Output to Literaturliste.bbl
[21420] Biber.pm:106> INFO - WARNINGS: 85
  • 4
    My first idea would be to give up with Latin-9 and switch to UTF-8. – egreg Mar 27 '15 at 10:21
  • 3
    In most cases this errors are due to underscores (e.g. because you added an url in a note or a howpublished field). You can add \errorcontextlines=200 then the log file should show you the offending url. You can also add in your preamble \catcode`\_=13 \def_{XXXXXXXXXXXX} This will show you the underscores. – Ulrike Fischer Mar 27 '15 at 10:54
  • @UlrikeFischer Thanks, that is exactly what I was looking for. – Manuel Weinkauf Mar 27 '15 at 13:17
8

In most cases this errors are due to underscores (e.g. because you added an url in a note or a howpublished field). You can add \errorcontextlines=200. Then the log file should show you the offending url. You can also add temporarly in your preamble

\catcode`\_=13 \def_{XXXXXXXXXXXX}

This will show you the underscores.

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