# When inserting figures in one column of two-column paper, there is too mach blank

When inserting figures in one column of two-column paper, there is too mach blank. Is there any order to make the paper be arranged better. Since the code below is just a example. I would appreciate if you could tell me why the unexpected blank would generate or why the words could't be typed in the blank.

Another question is how the bottom alignment be can achieved, which means the lowest text ,or caption, words in two column are in a line.

Thank you very much!

\documentclass[a4paper]{article}
\usepackage{float}
\usepackage{subfloat}
\usepackage{caption,subcaption}
\usepackage{bicaption}
\usepackage{subfig}
\usepackage{lipsum}
\usepackage[top=2.5cm,bottom=2.5cm,left=2cm,right=2cm]{geometry}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\begin{document}
\twocolumn
\section{Haha}
\lipsum[1-5]
\begin{figure}[!hbtp]
\begin{subfigure}{\linewidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=77mm]{fig9b}
\caption{hei}\label{fig:fig8a}
\end{subfigure}
\begin{subfigure}{\linewidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=77mm]{fig9b}
\caption{7月10日散流器Bi各测点风速值图}\label{fig:fig8b}
\end{subfigure}
\begin{subfigure}{\linewidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=77mm]{fig9b}
\caption{7月11日散流器Bi各测点风速值图}\label{fig:fig8c}
\end{subfigure}
\bicaption{不同测试日风口Bi各测点风速测试结果}{The test results of various measuring points wind speed of diffuser B$_i$}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}[!hbtp]
\begin{subfigure}{\linewidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=77mm]{fig9b}
\caption{hei}\label{fig:fig8a}
\end{subfigure}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}
\begin{subfigure}{\linewidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=77mm]{fig9b}
\caption{7月10日散流器Bi各测点风速值图}\label{fig:fig8b}
\end{subfigure}
\bicaption{不同测试日风口Bi各测点风速测试结果}{The test results of various measuring points wind speed of diffuser B$_i$}
\end{figure}
\section{Hi}
\lipsum[1-5]
\end{document}


• I'm not saying this is causing a problem here but you are loading several packages which try to format the same document elements in different ways e.g. subfloat and caption/subcaption, subcaption and subfig. You should load the packages you actually need and try to use the same package, for example, to handle caption and subcaption numbering throughout.
– cfr
Apr 5, 2015 at 16:15
• subfigure is for use when you have several different diagrams within a single figure. If you only have one per figure, don't use subfigure.
– cfr
Apr 5, 2015 at 16:16
• @cfr I need to make subcaption for each figure, so I use subfigure. Can you help me arrange this example better? Thank you!
– DXL
Apr 5, 2015 at 16:23
• But you don't need subcaption and subfig. They all support sub-captions in slightly different ways. You aren't even using subfig in the example!
– cfr
Apr 5, 2015 at 16:27
• @cfr :), I have another question. How the bottom alignment be can achieved, which means the bottom text ,or caption, words in two column are in a line. Thank you very much!
– DXL
Apr 5, 2015 at 16:39

I've removed unnecessary environments and packages. However, I suspect that the real problem must lie in white space in the images themselves or, perhaps, the size of the images is affecting placement. Here's what I get with the demo option for graphicx:

\documentclass[a4paper]{article}
\usepackage{subcaption}
\usepackage{bicaption}
\usepackage{lipsum}
\usepackage[top=2.5cm,bottom=2.5cm,left=2cm,right=2cm]{geometry}
\usepackage[demo]{graphicx}
\begin{document}
\twocolumn
\section{Haha}
\lipsum[1-5]
\begin{figure}[!hbtp]
\begin{subfigure}{\linewidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=77mm]{fig9b}
\caption{hei}\label{fig:fig8a}
\end{subfigure}
\begin{subfigure}{\linewidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=77mm]{fig9b}
\caption{7月10日散流器Bi各测点风速值图}\label{fig:fig8b}
\end{subfigure}
\begin{subfigure}{\linewidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=77mm]{fig9b}
\caption{7月11日散流器Bi各测点风速值图}\label{fig:fig8c}
\end{subfigure}
\bicaption{不同测试日风口Bi各测点风速测试结果}{The test results of various measuring points wind speed of diffuser B$_i$}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}[!hbtp]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=77mm]{fig9b}
\caption{hei}\label{fig:fig8a}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=77mm]{fig9b}
\caption{7月10日散流器Bi各测点风速值图}\label{fig:fig8b}
\bicaption{不同测试日风口Bi各测点风速测试结果}{The test results of various measuring points wind speed of diffuser B$_i$}
\end{figure}
\section{Hi}
\lipsum[1-5]
\end{document}

• This answer make the fourth and the fifth figure don't have a subcaption. So is there other and general way to solve the problem?
– DXL
Apr 5, 2015 at 16:30
• @DXL I don't really understand. Those figures are just single figures. So they have captions. Why would you want a single figure to have a sub-caption as well? Surely that will just be confusing?
– cfr
Apr 5, 2015 at 18:09