In the following diagram, Graph of a function partitioned into three subintervals which is generated by the following TikZ code,


\begin{figure}[h] \centering
    % function
    declare function={ f(\x) = pow(\x,4)/16-pow(\x,3)/4+1.1*\x+0.5; },
    % styles
    faint/.style={thin, gray},
    normal/.style={thin, black}]
% axes
\draw [thick, ->] (0, 0) -- (0, 5);
\draw [thick, ->] (0, 0) -- (4.5, 0);
\foreach \x/\xstr/\ystr in {0.6/$a = x_1$\kern 21pt/$f(a) = y_1$, 2.0/$x_2$/$y_2$, 3.3/$x_3$/$y_3$, 3.8/$\kern 19pt x_4 = b$/$f(b) = y_4$} {
    % partitions (x-axis, y-axis)
    \draw [faint] (\x, {f(\x)}) -- (\x, 0) node [normal, below, text height=8pt] {\xstr};
    \draw [faint] (\x, {f(\x)}) -- (0, {f(\x)}) node [normal, left] {\ystr};
    % points
    \fill (\x, {f(\x)}) circle (1pt);
% curve
\draw [thick, <->, domain=-0.5:4, samples=50] plot(\x, {f(\x)});


I use \kern to offset the labels $a = x_1$ and $x_4 = b$ so that the $x$ is always directly under the partition lines on the graph. This seems hacky, and I think there ought to be a better way, like how I can insert an & in an align environment to make text align to a particular character.

So is there a better way?

  • 1
    Welcome to TeX.SX! – Adam Liter May 29 '15 at 18:05

You can also use \phantom for that since the amount of shift is not constant hence not worth automating. But instead I would go about with pgfplots.

\begin{tikzpicture}[declare function={f(\x)=pow(0.5*\x,4)-pow(\x,3)/4+1.1*\x+0.5;}]
  axis lines*=middle,
  typeset ticklabels with strut]

\addplot[only marks,samples at={0.6,2,3.3,3.8}] {f(x)};
\addplot[thick, <->, domain=-0.2:4, samples=50] {f(x)};
  \foreach\x in{0.6,2,3.3,3.8}{
    \draw[thin, gray] (\x,0) |- (0,{f(\x)});

enter image description here

  • Perfect! \phantom was exactly what I was looking for. (I will probably not use pgfplots because the diagram actually has more components, which I removed from the MWE.) For future visitors, note that a small amount of spacing is lost when you use phantom unless you include a placeholder, like: a=x_1\phantom{{}=a} and \phantom{b={}}x_4=b. – Radon Rosborough May 29 '15 at 19:56
  • Alternatively, you could write, $\llap{$x={}$}x_1$. Or if you load the mathtools package, $\mathllap{x={}}x_1$. – A.Ellett May 29 '15 at 21:11

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