# Display historical characters “uͤ”, “oͤ” and “aͤ”?

I'm trying to display the above mentioned symbols. These are German historical letters which I need to mention in my thesis. I just found how to display letters with an "o" above them, but nothing with an "e". Any ideas?

• You might be interested in the font Junicode, which was designed specifically for medievalists and which supports, among many others things, the superscript e as a regular feature. Note that you have to use XeLaTeX or LuaLaTeX in order to use Junicode and these Unicode features. Once you’ve installed the package junicode (which is on CTAN), you can simply use \usepackage{fontspec} \setmainfont{Junicode} and type in the characters as you did in your question title. – doncherry Jun 18 '15 at 12:39

You can use the great Fraktur font by Yannis Haralambous:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{yfonts}

\begin{document}

\textfrak{Clavier"ubung Clavier*ubung}

\textfrak{"a *a "o *o "u *u}

\end{document}


The “older” orthography with a small “e” above the vowel is obtained by prefixing the vowel with * instead of " that produces the standard umlaut.

The same with \textswab instead of \textfrak for the Schwabacher font.

Consult the paper by Haralambous in TUGboat: https://www.tug.org/TUGboat/tb12-1/tb31hara.pdf

If you want an emulation with Roman fonts, here's a possibility:

\RequirePackage{fix-cm}
\documentclass{article}

\makeatletter
\DeclareRobustCommand{\e}[1]{%
\leavevmode
\vbox{\offinterlineskip
\check@mathfonts
\ialign{%
##\cr
\hidewidth\fontsize{\numexpr\ssf@size/2}\z@\bfseries\itshape e\hidewidth\cr
\noalign{\kern.2ex}
#1\cr
}%
}%
}
\makeatother

\begin{document}

\e{a} \e{o} \e{u}

\end{document}


• Sorry for the delayed answer - even though the thread is old, it is still the most pertinent answer I found. I have a small question: The "Roman" solution seems perfect for me, but I get an "invalid unit of measure" error everytime. Is there a fix to get rid of that? (It might make me miss more important error messages...) I assume, a part like "sff@size" or so is a unit of measure (Xe)Tex doesn't recognise? Thanks a lot!! – Paul Burgh Sep 14 '18 at 11:52
• @PaulBurgh I tried, but I got no error. Maybe you pasted just the definition, but not \makeatletter and \makeatother around it? – egreg Sep 14 '18 at 12:26
• That wasn't it. But the "fix-cm" package makes me think it might be that I am not using Computer Modern. However, I got it fixed by changing \fontsize{\numexpr\ssf@size/2} to \fontsize{4pt}. I assume this doesn't scale, but then again, it's a one-time-thing so it works well enough. Now I just need to replace all the oͤs with \e{o}. :) – Paul Burgh Sep 14 '18 at 20:13

You can also have a lot of fun with OpenType Fonts. Please compare input and output. The font is UnifrakturMaguntia (OFL). The font replaces all instances of umlauts to the pendant with the e above (StylisticSet=15). For capital letters we can choose to have the e next to the letter using StylisticSet=14.

StylisticSet=11 implements a heuristics to replace the round s with the long s (ſ). As this cannot be perfect, we need to help out a bit using \/.

The command for emphasized text has been redefined to give letterspacer text, common for Blackletter fonts. Required ligatures are kept.

Adding the combining character is also possible for roman fonts to get umlauts with a little e above.1

% arara: xelatex
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{xspace}
\usepackage{fontspec}
\newfontfamily\frakfont{UnifrakturMaguntia}
\setmainfont{Linux Libertine O}
\usepackage[german]{babel}
\usepackage[left=2cm]{geometry}
\setlength{\textwidth}{420pt}
\begin{document}
\Large
Und dann hüpfte das kleine Kaninchen, dem
Regen trotzend, über den künstlichen Rasen zur
Sonnenfinsternis. \emph{Manche sitzen} in der Wachstube, andere
lutschen an der Wachs\/tube, andere etc.\bigbreak

Using combining diacritics is also possible, if the font supports
it:\par
uͤ Aͤ \normalfont  suͤßes Oͤsterreich
\end{document}


1 Right now, the redefinition of \emshape is global and would apply to roman fonts as well. Better to use an environment to locally switch the definition of emshape and related stuff.

• Shouldn't si in sitzen also be spaced apart? Font bug? – Sverre Jun 16 '15 at 19:58
• @Sverre No font bug, i was in a hurry writing the answer, which is to be honest, some kind of stock material texwelt.de/wissen/fragen/13007/… Seems i have modified the example at a later point on my machine. Updated the answer :-) Thank you for noticing. – Johannes_B Jun 16 '15 at 20:08
• While the last line matches the output, it is probably not what you want it to be. You probably want to write uͤ Aͤ, so you demonstrate that you can achive the output using combining characters instead of stylistic sets. – Wrzlprmft Jun 18 '15 at 5:46
• Also note that with UnifrakturMaguntia, you usually want to use Stylistic Sets 14 and 15 together, as the former replaces Ä, Ö, Ü with Ae, Oe, Ue, which was the predominant spelling/style, when aͤ, oͤ and were used (the latter got replaced by ä, ö and ü some time before capital umlauts were invented). There are only very few historical examples of Aͤ, Oͤ and Uͤ. – Wrzlprmft Jun 18 '15 at 5:47
• @Wrzlprmft Thanks a lot, i have made some additions. If you have any good material on typesetting blackletter in english, i would like to add a link. Right now, all i have is in german. – Johannes_B Jun 18 '15 at 11:30

\font\vse=cmr10 at 5pt