I've read the similar questions with no avial. Any help would be appreciated!

Using TeXworks on Windows 7. Have





and bib_file.bib:

author = ``Robert C. Merton'',
title = ``On Estimating the Expected Return on the Market'',
year = ``1980'',
journal = ``Journal of Financial Economics'',
volume = ``8'',
pages = ``323--361''

Attempts included running pdfLaTeX+MakeIndex+BibTeX selected in the Typeset command, and running in turn, pdfLaTeX on tex_file.tex, BibTeX on tex_file.aux, pdfLaTeX on tex_file.tex and again pdfLaTeX on tex_file.tex. Both resulted in the same pdf: enter image description here

When I open tex_file.bbl, it contains



  • 1
    Wrong format in the bibtex data, use the " around the data entry, not ` `` ... ''`. Bibtex show give error or warning about this, but some editors never inform the user when there is bibtex warnings or errors – daleif Jul 20 '15 at 13:55
  • @Mico, sorry, it was .bib for compilation. Typo. – bcf Jul 20 '15 at 14:03

Remove the `` '' and put curly brackets around the arguments


author = {Robert C. Merton},

if you want a part to be exactly like you entered, you may choose another set of brackets

author = {{Robert} C. Merton},

this will not get abbreviated to R. C. Merton (independent from bib-style). This is also needed, if you need special characters or commands, say

author = {Robert C. Mert{\" o}n}

  • It is absolutely not the case that writing author = {{Robert} C. Merton} will keep the first name from being abbreviated to "R.". Please correct your write-up immediately. – Mico Jul 20 '15 at 14:08

This works just fine, the format states that you should use either {...} or "..." around entries.

author = "Robert C. Merton",
title = "On Estimating the Expected Return on the Market",
year = "1980",
journal = "Journal of Financial Economics",
volume = "8",
pages = "323--361" 


  • teXworks automatically changes double quotes to two single quotes. Do you know how I can stop this? Manually typing in two single quotes didn't work, either – bcf Jul 20 '15 at 14:02
  • @bcf Use braces instead, seems simpler than hacking around at a different site title= {Walzing wombats are happy} – Johannes_B Jul 20 '15 at 14:05
  • @bcf usually you just type it twice to get the real character – daleif Jul 20 '15 at 14:08
  • @bcf - You can disable the setting in TeXworks that replaces double quotes with pairs of single quotes. – Mico Jul 20 '15 at 14:10

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