# How to replace ampersand with “and” in in-text citation in elsarticle.cls with apa style?

I'm preparing an article for an Elsevier journal and would like to replace the ampersand (&) with an "and" in the in-text citations.

I have to use APA style citation and references, therefore I have downloaded the Elsevier template from LaTeX Instructions and changed the preamble according to the description in the template.

However, a citation in a sentence \citet uses an ampersand \& to connect the authors instead of the word "and". How can I change this?

I have already tried to edit model5-names.bst (included in the template) and found the following function:

FUNCTION {bbl.and}
{ "\&"}


After changing this to "and" every citation (regardless whether in parenthesis or in text) uses "and" instead of "\&", which is not the desired result.

Any hints or help is very much appreciated!

My preamble:

\documentclass[review]{elsarticle}

\usepackage{lineno,hyperref}
\modulolinenumbers[5]

\journal{Journal of \LaTeX\ Templates}

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% Elsevier bibliography styles
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%% APA style
\bibliographystyle{model5-names}\biboptions{authoryear, longnamesfirst}

\begin{document}

Here are is a sample reference: \citet{Feynman1963118}.

• i think it would take some work to treat the authors differently in the citations and the bibliography. more generally, are you sure you WANT to change the behaviour of the journal template? If the journal feels your changes do not comply with their style you will have to change it back. I never use author year citation, does \citeauthor give a different output? – Bort Aug 13 '15 at 12:14
• The template is used for different Elsevier journals and I thought it would make sense to stick to APA style as closely as possible for this particular journal. But I agree, if the publishers interpretation of APA style is more liberal then it might not be worth changing the template if there is no easy fix. – Florian Aug 13 '15 at 12:20
• also be aware that the template they are providing you is only roughly (in case of elsevier to my experience VERY roughly) the production code. Meaning there will be differences, you cannot control. Use common commands in a precise manner (i.e. think about what you want to use instead of what the "usual" output is). And do not get hung up in tiny details (like positioning figures, not worth it, will change). Just make sure it is readable for the referees – Bort Aug 13 '15 at 12:25
• The & is a command, so there is no need to change the bst, you could do something like {\renewcommand\&{and}\citet{Feynman1963118,Dirac1953888}}. But patching natbib's cite commands is not easy and imho it is not a good idea to change the style of a journal. – Ulrike Fischer Aug 13 '15 at 13:08