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I am planning to make a facsimile of a certain book in a certain edition. How can I tell LaTeX (LuaTeX, specifically) to place page breaks exactly where they appeared in the original?

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    If you show us some compilable code we can better help you ... – Mensch Sep 21 '15 at 20:44
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    Welcome to TeX.SX! Please help us help you and add a minimal working example (MWE) that illustrates your problem. Reproducing the problem and finding out what the issue is will be much easier when we see compilable code, starting with \documentclass{...} and ending with \end{document}. – Martin Schröder Sep 23 '15 at 14:09
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If the manual page break should occur inside a paragraph, then the paragraph should be ended without \parfillskip to avoid a ragged last line:

\begingroup\setlength{\parfillskip}{0pt}\par\endgroup

\noindent prevents, that the new paragraph starts with indentation. The paragraph separation space \parskip is automatically removed at the start of the new page.

The ragged page can be prevented by using \flushbottom (either globally or locally) and using \break in vertical mode instead of \newpage. The latter automatically adds \vfil to fill the page.

Also the stretch component of \baselineskip and/or \parskip should be set to make it possible for TeX to stretch the page contents to reach the bottom of the page.

\parskip can be set in the preamble, but \baselineskip is overwritten by each change of the font size. Also the internal font size setting commands can be changed to add stretch components automatically.

Example:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[a5paper,showframe]{geometry}
\usepackage{microtype}

\newcommand*{\midparbreak}{%
  \begingroup
    \flushbottom
    \setlength{\parfillskip}{0pt}% end paragraph without ragged last line
    \par % end paragraph
    \break % end page
  \endgroup
  \noindent % start remaining lines of paragraph on new page
            % without paragraph indentation
}

\begin{document}
\addtolength{\baselineskip}{0pt plus 20pt}
  Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer
  adipiscing elit. Ut purus elit, vestibulum ut, placerat ac,
  adipiscing vitae, felis. Curabitur dictum gravida mauris. Nam arcu
  libero, nonummy eget, consectetuer id, vulputate a, magna. Donec
  vehicula augue eu neque. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique
  senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Mauris ut
  leo. Cras viverra metus rhoncus sem. Nulla et lectus vestibulum urna
  fringilla ultrices.  Phasellus eu tellus sit amet tortor gravida
  placerat. Integer sapien est, iaculis in, pretium quis, viverra ac,
  nunc. Praesent eget sem vel leo ultrices bibendum. Aenean faucibus.
  Morbi dolor nulla, malesuada eu, pulvinar at, mollis ac, nulla.
  Curabitur auctor semper nulla. Donec varius orci eget risus. Duis
  nibh mi, congue eu, accumsan eleifend, sagittis quis, diam. Duis
\midparbreak
  eget orci sit amet orci dignissim rutrum.
\end{document}
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