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I have generated two PDF files from the same source, one via XeLaTeX and the other via pdfLaTeX. The pdfLaTeX file is larger (as already noted in File size difference between XeLaTeX and pdfLaTeX). The PDF generated from pdfLaTeX fails to print using a canon iR-ADV 4225 copier/printer. I plan to file this as a bug with canon but I can't even find a way to identify how these files are different (other than size). Looking at the fonts included in the PDF file, they appear as the same list according to Adobe Reader. From the earlier discussion, I suspect the compact fonts explain the file size different but can't determine why this would create a failure at the printer. If I remove the mathdesign bitstream font lines then both files print fine via the printer. Is there something else I can try?

Added in edit: A minimal test case is as follows:

\documentclass[12pt]{exam}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage[bitstream-charter]{mathdesign}

\begin{document}
Test
\end{document}

I have noticed this error with any files I compile using pdfLaTeX whereas re-compling with XeLaTeX works fine. I've adjusted my workflow, but still curious why this matters.

The compiled files (source and two output PDFs are available at the following link if interested):

https://www.dropbox.com/sh/c2chzk7ijcl65nk/AABvbsBuGinrtkBYmtHRnIhAa?dl=0

Other (possibly relevant) details: Mac OSX 10.11.1 Canon ir-ADV 4225 driver version 10.7.0

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    Welcome! Note that questions should be self-contained so that they are useful to many users. They shouldn't depend on external links. Moreover, many readers will be extremely reluctant to download arbitrary files from unknown sources. Can you create a small example document demonstrating the problem? If not, perhaps it is just the size which is the problem? Limited memory in the printer and a failure to spool stuff in a sufficiently controlled way? – cfr Oct 7 '15 at 1:31
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    Size seems to not be a factor, I've had the minimal test case fail, regular sized PDFs (30k or so) fail, and always the XeLaTeX version prints fine. The pdfLaTeX version only fails on a specific printer driver (canon irADV 4225) but prints fine to a generic PS printer. Not sure what pdfLaTeX could possibly be doing that makes it's files different. I suspect the canon driver, but would like TeX expert advice if there is any before I scold them for a bad driver. – AMCDawes Oct 7 '15 at 1:46
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    XeTeX, Version 3.14159265-2.6-0.99992 (TeX Live 2015) and pdfTeX, Version 3.14159265-2.6-1.40.16 (TeX Live 2015) – AMCDawes Oct 7 '15 at 1:54
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    You probably don't want to use T1 with XeLaTeX. It isn't wrong, but it isn't usually what you need. (This is off-topic because I have no idea why your PDF won't print, but thought I'd mention it.) – cfr Oct 7 '15 at 1:57
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    Interestingly, considering your problem (which I cannot reproduce with the above file), it is arguable that you should not use mathdesign with xelatex or lualatex at all since mathdesign.sty ends with \RequirePackage[T1]{fontspec}.... – jon Oct 7 '15 at 2:25

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