Coming from the C/C++ world, I am used to a standardized language. There are differenct standards, such as ISO or ANSI C.
Is there a language standard for LaTeX? (Syntax, keywords, ...)
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There is no specifications
We should differenciate several point here I think. You speak about LaTeX but nothing about TeX, LuaLaTeX or XeLaTeX.
Basic command are written by D. E. Knuth himself. No need to standardize then. For information you can modified the source code of TeX but in this case, you have not the right to called the modified program TeX:
% This program is copyright (C) 1982 by D. E. Knuth; all rights are reserved. % Copying of this file is authorized only if (1) you are D. E. Knuth, or if % (2) you make absolutely no changes to your copy. (The WEB system provides % for alterations via an auxiliary file; the master file should stay intact.) % See Appendix H of the WEB manual for hints on how to install this program. % And see Appendix A of the TRIP manual for details about how to validate it.
I decided to put both of them in the same categories. The goal is to make extension of (La)TeX:
There is no specifications as ISO, ANSI, AFNOR or from other organization but standard de facto.